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Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria

Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria

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its a gud paper for research student to know abt SOB
its a gud paper for research student to know abt SOB

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Published by: srinisanzo84 on Dec 27, 2009
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World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (3): 270-278, 2009ISSN 1817-3047© IDOSI Publications, 2009
Corresponding Author:
R. Vidyalakshmi, Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur-4, Tamil Nadu, India
270
Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria and Pulse Nutrition - A Review
 R. Vidyalakshmi, R. Paranthaman and R. Bhakyaraj
Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur-4, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract:
Sulphur oxidizers are involved in oxidation of elemental sulphur to plant available sulphate. Sulphuris the key element for higher pulse production and plays an important role in the formation of proteins, vitaminsand enzymes. Sulphur is a constituent of the essential amino acids cystine, cysteine and methionine. In therecent years the importance of sulphur in pulse nutrition has been well recognized because of the widespreadoccurrence of its deficiency in the soil world over. Majority of sulphur taken up by plant roots is in the formof sulphate (SO), which undergoes a series of transformation prior to its incorporation into the original
4
compounds. The soil microbial biomass is the key driving force behind all sulphur transformations. The biomassacts as both a source and sink for inorganic sulphate. They make available sulphate from element or anyreduced forms of sulphur, through oxidation process in the soil. The role of chemolithotrophic bacteria of thegenus
Thiobacillus
in this process is usually emphasized. Use of sulphur oxidizers enhance the naturaloxidation and speed up the production of sulphates.
Key words:
Sulphur
%
Sulphur Oxidizing microorganisms
%
Pulse
INTRODUCTION
when supplied with oxidizable sulphur compounds (andSulphur is one of the essential plant nutrients and itthat can also use the chemolithoautotrophic modecontributes to yield and quality of crops. Sulphur occursof growth. The obligate chemolithotrophs includein a wide variety of organic and inorganic combinations.
Thiobacillus
 
thioparus, T. neapolitanus, T. denitrificans
The transfer of sulphur between the inorganic and organic(facultative denitrifier ),
Thiobacillus thiooxidans
pool is entirely caused by the activity of the soil biota,(extreme acidophile),
Thiobacillus
 
 ferrooxidans
particularly the soil microbial biomass, which has the(acidophilic ferrous iron-oxidizer),
Thiobacillus
greatest potential for both mineralization and also for
halophilus
(halophile) and some species of subsequent transformation of the oxidation state of 
Thiomicrospira
. The heterotrophs include
Thiobacillus
sulphur.
Thiobacilli
play an important role in sulphur
novellus, T. acidophilus
(acidophile),
Thiobacillus
oxidation in soil. Sulphur oxidation is the most important
aquaesulis
(moderate thermophile),
Thiobacillus
step of sulphur cycle, which improves soil fertility. It
intermedius, Paracoccus denitrificans, P. versutus,
results in the formation of sulphate, which can be used by
 Xanthobacter tagetidis, Thiosphaera pantotroph
andthe plants, while the acidity produced by oxidation helps
Thiomicrospira thyasirae.
to solubilize plant nutrients and improves alkali soils [1].Several
Thiobacillus
species are able to utilize
Sulphur Oxidizing Microorganisms:
The sulphursimultaneously, often referred to as mixotrophic growthoxidizing microorganisms are primarily the gram[2]. Depending on the ratio of inorganic and organicnegative bacteria currently classified as species ofsubstrates, CO may serve as an additional carbon source.
Thiobacillus, Thiomicrospira
and
Thiosphaera
, butOf the 13 species of the genus
Thiobacillus
recognized,heterotrophs, such as some species of 
Paracoccus,
occurring in diverse habitats, only five species are
 Xanthobacter, Alcaligens
and
Pseudomonas
can alsoimportant in sulphur oxidation in soil [3]. Four of theseexhibit chemolithotrophic growth on inorganic sulphur
Thiobacillus
 
thiooxidans, T. ferrooxidans, T. thioparus
compounds [2].and
T. denitrificans
are obligate chemoautotrophsTwo clear metabolic types exist in this group:while
T. novellus
is considered a facultativeThe obligate chemolithotrophs, which can only growchemoautotroph [4].CO as the source of metabolic carbon) and heterotrophs
2
mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds
2
 
World J. Agric. Sci., 5 (3): 270-278, 2009
271Also fungi are capable of oxidizing elemental sulphurDifferent metabolic reactions merge into commonand thiosulphate, which include,
 Alternaria tenius,
mechanism in lithotrophic and phototrophic sulphur
 Aureobasidium pullulans, Epicoccum nigrum
, a range ofoxidizing bacteria [30].
Penicillium
species [5],
Scolecobasidium constrictum, Myrothecium cinctum
and
 Aspergillus
[6].
Other Sulphur Bacteria:
Other bacteria may also
The Sulphur-Oxidizing Prokaryotes:
Biologicalinclude those bacteria that have a gliding motion on theoxidation of hydrogen sulphide to sulphate is one ofsubstrate; their cells are arranged in trichomes. The mostthe major reactions of the global sulphur-cycle. Reducedimportant members of this group in relation to sulphurinorganic sulphur compounds are exclusively oxidized byoxidation in soils are species of 
 Beggiatoa
bacteria thatprokaryotes and sulphate is the major oxidation product.participate in sulphate oxidation in the root zone of Sulphur oxidation in members of the
 Eukarya
is mediatedrice. All strains of 
 Beggiatoa
deposit sulphurby lithoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts [7]. In theintracellularly in the presence of hydrogen sulphide.domain
 Archaea
aerobic sulphur oxidation is restrictedPhototrophic bacteria, such as
Chromatium
andto members of the
Sulfolobales
[8, 9] and in the domain
Chlorobium
, also play an important role in sulphide
 Bacteria
sulphur is oxidized by aerobic lithotrophs or byoxidation in rice soil, but not in aerobic agricultural soilsanaerobic phototrophs. The nonphototrophic obligate[2]. A number of non-filamentous, chemolithotrophicanaerobe
Wolinella succinogenes
oxidizes hydrogensulphur oxidizing bacteria such as
Sulfolobus, Thiospira
sulphide to polysulphide during fumarate respiration [10].or
Thiomicrospira
have also been isolated fromProkaryotes oxidize hydrogen sulphide, sulphur,special habitats.sulphite, thiosulphate and various polythionatesunder alkaline [11] neutral or acidic conditions 12].
Sulphur Transformation in Soil:
The dominant form of Aerobic sulphur oxidizing prokaryotes belong to generasulphur taken up by plants and soil microbes is sulphate.like
 Acidianus
13],
 Acidithiobacillus
[14],
 Aquaspirillum
The sulphur may originate from the weathering of soil[15],
 Aquifer 
[16],
 Bacillus
[17],
 Beggiatoa
(Strohl,minerals, from the atmosphere and from originally bound1989)[18],
 Methylobacterium
[19,20],
Paracoccus,
sulphur. Transformation of elemental sulphur to sulphate
Pseudomonas
[15],
Starkeya
[21],
Sulfolobus
,form was necessary for sulphur to be available for crop
Thermithiobacillus
[14],
Thiobacillus
and
 Xanthobacter 
uptake [31]. The oxidation was faster in coarse textured[15] and are mainly mesophilic. Phototrophic anaerobicsoils and was completed in 3-4 weeks [32]. Sulphursulphur oxidizing bacteria are mainly neutrophilic andtransformations in soil are considered to result primarilymesophilic [22,23] and belong to genera likefrom microbial activity which involves processes of 
 Allochromatium
[24],
Chlorobium, Rhodobacter,
mineralization, immobilization, oxidation and reduction.
 Rhodopseudomonas
,
 Rhodovulum
and
Thiocapsa
[25].Reduced sulphur compounds formed by assimilatoryLithoautotrophic growth in the dark has been describedsulphate reduction are cell constituents and are thereforefor
Thiocapsa roseopersicina, Allochromatium vinosum
protected within the cells against reaction with oxygen.and other purple sulphur bacteria, as well as for purpleThe reduction of SO to HS is mediated by anaerobicnon sulphur bacteria like
 Rhodovulum sulfidohilum
[26],sulphate-reducing bacteria. Sulphate reduction is a major
 Rhodocyclus genatinosus
and
 Rhodopseudomonas
component of the sulphur cycle in soils exposed to water
acidopphila
[27, 28]. This capacity may be based onlogging conditions or periodic flooding, especially, whererelated biochemical mechanism of sulphur oxidation inreadily decomposable plant residues are present.lithotrophic bacteria.The biogeochemical transformations of sulphur haveTwo groups of sulphur oxidizing lithotrophic bacteriabeen formulated by Vernadskii [34].have been distinguished previously; members of oneIn the magmatic crust of our planet, sulphur is alwaysgroup are able to utilize polythionates and members of thepresent in its reduced form as sulfide of metals. Oxidationother group are not able to do this [29, 13]. On the basisof the magmatic metal sulphides reaching the crust andof physiological and biochemical data, at least two majorsettling in ore deposits preceded with the participation of pathways have been proposed for sulphur oxidizing
Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
into the oceans. In aridbacteria: (I) the sulphur oxidation pathway and (ii) theregions, lagoons, or inland seas they may form gypsumS intermediate pathway involving polythionates [29].deposits. In waterlogged soils, sulphates are reduced to
4
oxidize sulphur compounds. The gliding sulphur oxidizers
4
 
2
 
SULPHURSULPHATEHYDROGENSULPHIDE
  B A  C  T  E  R  I A  L   O  X  I  D A  T  I  O  N  B A  C  T  E  R  I A  L   R  E  D  U  C  T  I  O  N
  O  X  I  D  A  T  I  O  N   B  Y   A  N  I  M  A  L  S   A  N  D   M  I  C  R  O  O  R  G  A  N  I  S  M  S
A   C   T   I   O   N   O   F   H   E   T   E   R   O   T   R   O   P   H   I   C   B   A   C   T   E   R   I   A   
  H  I  G  H  E  R   P  L  A  N   T  S   A  N  D   M  I  C  R  O  B  I  A  L   S   Y  N   T  H  E  S  I  S
BACTERIAL REDUCTIONBACTERIAL OXIDATION
ORGANICSULPHURCOMPOUNDS
B  A  C  T   E  R  I  A   O  X   I  D  A  T   I  O  N  
SULPHURSULPHATEHYDROGENSULPHIDE
  B A  C  T  E  R  I A  L   O  X  I  D A  T  I  O  N  B A  C  T  E  R  I A  L   R  E  D  U  C  T  I  O  N
  O  X  I  D  A  T  I  O  N   B  Y   A  N  I  M  A  L  S   A  N  D   M  I  C  R  O  O  R  G  A  N  I  S  M  S
A   C   T   I   O   N   O   F   H   E   T   E   R   O   T   R   O   P   H   I   C   B   A   C   T   E   R   I   A   
  H  I  G  H  E  R   P  L  A  N   T  S   A  N  D   M  I  C  R  O  B  I  A  L   S   Y  N   T  H  E  S  I  S
BACTERIAL REDUCTIONBACTERIAL OXIDATION
ORGANICSULPHURCOMPOUNDS
B  A  C  T   E  R  I  A   O  X   I  D  A  T   I  O  N  
World J. Agric. Sci., 5 (3): 270-278, 2009
272Fig. 1: The sulphur cycle [33]organism was first isolated by Nathansohn [39], from thehydrogen sulphide by
 Desulfovibrio desulfuricans
. Whenmineral media containing thiosulphate was accompaniedthe secondarily formed hydrogen sulphide enters theby the production of a pellicle of elemental sulphur.oxidative zone, it is oxidized by
Thiobacillus thioparus
.According to Nathansohn [39], these organisms deriveThis is the pattern of formation of sedimentary depositstheir energy from the exothermic oxidation of thiosulphateof native sulphur. The activity of 
T. thioparus
andto tetrathionate and sulphuric acid.
T. thiooxidans
in the soil accounts for the oxidation ofBacteria, closely resembling the organisms describedhydrogen sulphide to sulphur. The final oxidation stageby Nathanson [39], were isolated in pure culture byof molecular sulphur to sulphuric acid is accounted for, byBeijernick [40], from seawater, silts of the Delft canals andthe activity of 
T. thiooxidans
. The role of filamentousfreshwater. The new organism studied by Nathanson [39]and pigmented sulphur bacteria in the metabolism ofand Beijerinck [40] was named
Thiobacillus
 
thioparus
.sulphur in water bodies and soil was of secondaryThe
T. thioparus
was isolated by various authorsimportance [35]. (Jacobsen, [41] Jofee, [42] Brown, [43]) from soil,
Role of 
Thiobacilli
in the Oxidation of Sulphur in Soil:
sulphur to sulfate was also studied. Waksman [44]Though sulphur traces may be oxidized in soil by variousspecies of microorganisms and fungi, Waksman [36]pointed out
Thiobacilli
as the most characteristic groupof microorganism performing the oxidative part of sulphurtransformation in soil.Studies on the distribution of 
Thiobacillusthioxidans
and
T. thioparus
showed that these bacteriaare found in an active state mainly in soils fertilized withsulphur. The distribution of 
T. thioparus
in soils wasstudied by Starkey [37], who demonstrated the almostubiquitous presence of bacteria in alkaline and neutralsoils and their absence in strongly acid soils fertilizedwith sulphur. The widespread occurrence of 
Thiobacilli
in soils fertilized with sulphur or in soils in whichaccumulation of sulphur compounds occurs under naturalconditions (marshes and peats) indicates that thesebacteria play an important role in the oxidation of sulphurand its compounds in soils.Inoculation of 
Thiobacilli
generally increases therate of sulphur oxidation [38], although such amendmentis unnecessary in many agricultural soils, as theypossess a native population of sulphur oxidizers which isstimulated on sulphur addition. Kapoor and Mishra [38]observed that sulphur was rapidly oxidized in a field soilof pH8.0 and the rate of oxidation could be enhanced byinoculation with
T. thiooxidans
.
Isolation, Characterization and Identification of SulphurOxidizing BacteriaIsolation:
In 1888, Winogradsky, on the basis of hisstudies on
 Beggiatoa
, established that sulphur bacteriaderive their energy from the oxidation of reduced sulphurcompounds and utilize it for the uptake of CO. Similar
2
silts of the Bay of Naples. Their excellent growth inditchwater, sewage and sea water and its oxidation of isolated
Thiobacillus
 
thioparus
and
Thiobacillusnovellus
from compost which were capable of sulphuroxidation under alkaline condition.Waksman and Jofee [45] described another speciesof 
Thiobacilli
, isolated from soil previously fertilized withsulphur and designated as
Thiobacillus
 
thiooxidans.
Brown [43] obtained a similar organism from garden soil,activated sludge and soil-sulphur compost. Ayyar [46]and Ayyar
et al.
[47] obtained a culture from activatedsludge which reacted much same as
Thiobacillusthiooxidans.
Emoto [48, 49] isolated from hot springs severalbacterial strains differentiated mainly by colonialmorphology:
Thiobacillus
 
thermitanus, T. umbonatus,T. lobatus
and
T. crenatus
. These are autotrophic,developing at low pH, morphologically resemblingvariants of 
Thiobacillus
 
thiooxidans.
Starkey [50]isolated sulphur oxidizing bacteria from soil. Parker [51],Parker and Prisk [52] isolated
Thiobacillus
X and
Thiobacillus
 
concretivorus
from corroded concrete. The

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