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How to Build a Computer Network

How to Build a Computer Network

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Published by: VIKALP KULSHRESTHA on Dec 27, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Vocational Training Course-2008
A Simple Network 
A simple computer network may be developed from two or more computers. Each computer will require a NIC card and a special cable known as a cross over cable. If the computers aremore than two then a specialized networking device known as hub or switch will be requiredand all the computers in a network will be connected with the hub or switch. A simplenetwork is useful for home networking. Additionally, a network between the two computerscan be established by using a standard connection such as Rs-232 serial port on bothcomputers connecting with each other by a special cross lined null modem cable.
Practical Networks
Practical networks generally consist of more than two computers and require specializeddevices along with the NIC cards and these devices can be hubs, modems, switches, routersand others.
Common Types of Networks:
Following is the list of the common computer networking types.
LAN (Local Area Network):
A network that is limited to a relatively small geographical area such as a room, building,school network, ship, aircraft or a small office. LANs are also known as single locationnetworks. The large LANs may be divided into the smaller logical segments known asworkgroups.
CAN (Campus Area Network):
A network that connects two or more small LANs and is limited to a specific geographicalarea, such as a school, college, university campus or a military base, is known as a CAN. ACAN is generally confined to an area that is smaller than a Metropolitan area network.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network):
AIR GWALIORC.P.Harikumar-2008
Vocational Training Course-2008
A network that connects two or more LANs or CANs within a geographical area in a town,city or a metropolitan area is known as a MAN. A number or communication devices arerequired to create a MAN such as routers, switches, hubs and modems etc.
WAN (Wide Area Networks):
A WAN is a data communication network type that covers a very large geographical area.WAN networks can be privately owned such as a multi national company network or  publically own such as internet. WAN technology generally functions at the lower threelayers of the OSI model. Internet is the best example of WAN. There are two main types of WAN centralized and distributed WAN. The centralized WAN consists of a central computer that is connected to the dumb terminal or other types of the communication devices, such as a bank and post office networks. The distributed WAN consists of two or more computers thatare physically placed at different locations and may also include connections to dumbterminal and other connecting devices.
Two or more networks or connecting together using communication devices such as router.Any interconnection between private, commercial, public or government network may also be defined as internetwork. A specific internetwork consists of international interconnectionof government, public and private networks.
An internetwork or a network that is limited to a single organization and uses TCP/IP protocol suite, HTTP, FTP and other protocols. Intranet can be categorized into LAN, MAN,CAN and WAN. Intranet is a company’s private network that is only accessible to theauthorized users.
Extranet is a combination of intranet and some other trusted networks. For example acompany’s customer may be provided access to the intranet, creating an intranet and while atthe same time the customer may not be considered trusted with regards to the security of thecompany. An extranet can also be categorized into CAN, MAN and WAN and by definitionextranet cannot be considered to consist of only a single LAN. An extranet must have at leastone connection the extra network. Intranet and extranet may also have the connections to theinternet. But only the authorized users can enter into the extranet internet plays a role only of a portal.
A virtual LAN commonly known as VLAN is a method of creating independent logicalnetworks within a physically network. Many Vlans can consist in a physical network. Vanshelp in reducing the broadcast domain and aids in network administration by separating thelogical segments of a LAN. VLANS behaves as if connected to the same wire even thoughthey may actually be physically connected to the different segments of a LAN. VLANs can be configured with software rather than hardware. One main advantage of the VLAN is that
AIR GWALIORC.P.Harikumar-2008

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