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Networking Methods

Networking Methods

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Published by: VIKALP KULSHRESTHA on Dec 27, 2009
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 Vocational Training Course-2008
 AIR GWALIOR C.P.Harikumar-2008
Networking is a complex part of the computing and it covers the broader range of theIT industry. All the communication in the world including satellite communication,mobile communication, internet, telephones and WANs is due to the networking.There are two main types of the networking.
Local Area Network (LAN)
  A local area network is relatively covers small space and provides services to a smallamount of people. A local area can be divided into two major types, peer to peer andthe client server. Depending on the number of the users a network is configured. Among the few examples of the peer-to-peer networks are small office network andhome networks. On the other hand, in the client/server-networking model all theclient computers depends on the server for resources like (modem, printer, scanner,cd-rom) and they are connected with the server. The servers in the client/server networking model works in different capacities like single service server and multipleservice servers.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
  A wide area network is a network where are large number of the resources aredeployed in a very wide geographically area. The best example of the WAN is theinternet itself, which is a largest network in the world.In order for communication to take place between the computers the mediums mustbe used. These mediums can be cables, Routers, Repeaters, Ethernet, Protocolsand switches etc. These different mediums make the data communication possible indifferent scenarios.
Types of WANs
 There are two basic types of Wide Area Networking. A computer network is set of computers and devices that are connected with eachother. Examples of the networks are the Internet, local area network, Wide areanetwork and satellite networks.
Centralized WANS:
  A WAN that consists of a server or a group of servers in a central location to whichclient computers connect, the server provides the most of the functionalities of anetwork. Many banks, large stores, large schools and universities use centralized
 Vocational Training Course-2008
 AIR GWALIOR C.P.Harikumar-2008
WAN. A centralized wide area network may have a number of the servers in thecentralized location.
istributed WAN:
  A wide area network that consists of the client and server computers that aredistributed throughout the WAN, the functionalities of the network are distributedthroughout the WAN. The internet is an example of the wide area network.The impact of Wide Area Networking on businessIn this age of information, data communication (sending and receiving data) over along distance is a necessity. There have been number of technologies developedthat enable networks and their users to communicate with each other, and exchangedata easily even if they are at the different end of the world. Geographical area is nomore a matter in today¶s communication age. Because of this the communicationthrough WAN has been become vital. Wide area networks make it feasible for thecompanies to have a single network, which will connect their several offices anddepartments. Companies, banks, large organizations often have their offices spreadover a large distance. Without wide area networking the people of a multinationalorganization can face difficulties to communicate with each. WANs are important inconnecting institutes they are very far from each other.The main purpose of the wan is to establish a secure, fast and reliable communicatechannel among the people who are widely away from each other. Wide areanetworks are often privately owned networks. A wide area network uses many typesof network devices such as WAN switches, access servers, CSU/DSU, modems,ISDN terminal adapters, routers, multiplexers, ATM switches and other networkingdevices. An example of the WAN is SURF net, which is a research network and thatconnects the universities and research centers of the Netherlands with each other.
 What is Ethernet ?
 In this section you will learn about the lan terminology, basic ethernet networkingoverview, a general introduction to LAN, introduction to IEEE, lan topologies, wanstandards. You can also find these categories in this site such as network tutorials,computer networking guide, what is networking, tech study guides, topologies, whatis data recovery, wireless communication, computer interview questions and networkcertification. The IEEE standards have been developed by the InternationalStandards Organization (ISO). The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers(IEEE) in 1985 produced a series of standards for the Local Area Networks, whichare called IEEE 802 standards.These standards have been accepted widely throughout the IT world. One of theIEEE 802 standards, the IEEE 802.3 is known as ³Ethernet´. Ethernet is the mostwidely used LAN technology. Ethernet was developed by Xerox corporations in 1972and it was the first LAN. According to the ISO standards allows manufactures to produce the devices andequipments, which are guaranteed to operate anywhere.
 Vocational Training Course-2008
 AIR GWALIOR C.P.Harikumar-2008
The Ethernet in its simplest form uses a passive bus that operates at 10 Mbps. Thebus is formed from the co-axial cable, which connects all the PCs in the LAN. A single LAN may have 1024 attached computers, although in the real practice mostLANS have fewer computers than this number. One or more segments of the co-axial cable are attached to end to end to create the Ethernet Cable Segment. Eachsegment is terminated by 50-ohm resistors.In today¶s IT world the reliable and timely access to the information has become vital.Today coworkers thousands of miles apart from each other can share data, voice,video etc with the fractions of seconds. Similarly a larger number of the coworkerscan review the research data simultaneously. The Internet allows businesses toshare information and resources with their customers.Ethernet is a communication protocol that is embedded in software and hardwaredevices that intended. Ethernet has become the standard computer networkingprotocol with the help of the Xerox, Intel and Digital A basic LAN consists of the following components. Two or more computers. Network Interface card or LAN Card in each PC. Ethernet cable (Cat5, UTP/SPT) cable to connect the two computers. A hub, switch or router to route or direct the network traffic. Software for the communication/computer networking. A network interface card (NIC) is attached and installed in each PC and is assigneda unique address. An Ethernet cable is used to connect two computers; Ethernetcable has RJ45connectors at both ends. There can be two scenarios 1. Twocomputers can directly connect with each other or 2. Each computer is directlyconnected with the hub/switch and hence communication occurs in the network. Thehub or switch acts as relay.Computer Network can be wireless. Despite of using Ethernet cable for thecommunication, Wireless Network Interface cards use radio waves to communicatewith the wireless switch or hub. A small antenna is used in the wireless NICs,switches and hubs. Although the wireless networks are more easy to use ascompared to the cabled networks, but more configurations and extra care is requiredto setup and run a wireless network.The alternate technologies to Ethernet are ³Token Ring´, which is used in the RingTopologies networks. Token Ring is designed by the IBM and ATM. In ATMnetworking, devices are connected with each other over a very large distance (thusforms the WAN), and behaves like LANs.Ethernet is a well-established and widely used network standard for small to mediumsized Ethernet networks as well as for other networks. Ethernet has been used over the 3 decades and forms a very excellent networking/communication environment.Ethernet Terms

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