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Muslim Scientists

Muslim Scientists

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Published by Akhi Mohamad Aiyad
Maklumat lebih lanjut layari http://elaksamana.blogspot.com
Maklumat lebih lanjut layari http://elaksamana.blogspot.com

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Published by: Akhi Mohamad Aiyad on Dec 27, 2009
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MUSLIM SCIENTISTSIslam is indeed a religion of excellence. It gave birth to many brilliant scientiststhat changed the world with their knowledge, ideas and innovation.Islam is indeed a religion of excellence. It gave birth to many brilliant scientiststhat changed the world with their knowledge, ideas and innovation. It wouldsuffice to highlight just a few names out of a long list of names of Muslimscientists, to show their contributions to the world.Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi. He was known in the west asAbulcasis and was born in 936 C.E. in Zahra in the neighbourhood of Cordova.He was best known for his early and original breakthroughs in surgery as well asfor his famous Medical Encyclopaedia called al-Tasrif, which is composed of thirty volumes covering different aspects of medical science. He perfectedseveral delicate operations, including removal of the dead foetus and amputation.Al-Tasrif was first translated by Gherard of Cremona into Latin in the MiddleAges. Al-Zahrawi was the inventor of several surgical instruments, of which threeare notable: (i) an instrument for internal examination of the ear, (ii) an instrumentfor internal inspection of the urethra, and (iii) and instrument for applying or removing foreign bodies from the throat. He specialized in curing disease bycauterization and applied the technique to as many as 50 different operations. Al-Zahrawi was also an expert in dentistry, and his book contains sketches of various instruments used thereof, in addition to a description of various importantdental operations. He developed the technique of preparing artificial teeth andreplacement of defective teeth. In medicine, he was the first to describe in detailthe unusual disease, haemophilia. The French surgeon, Guy de Chauliac, in hisGreat Surgery, completed in about 1363, quoted at-Tasrif over 200 times.Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi. He was born at Khawarizm(Kheva), south of Aral sea. He flourished under the caliph al-Mamun at Baghdadthrough 813-833 and probably died around 840 C.E. Khawarizmi was amathematician, astronomer and geographer. He was perhaps one of the greatestmathematicians who ever lived. In the words of Phillip Hitti, he influenced mathe-matical thought to a greater extent than any other medieval writer. His work onalgebra was outstanding, as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic formbut he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions to linear and
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quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. The veryname Algebra was derived from his famous book al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah.Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of numerals that is known as algorithm, is named after him. He developed in detailtrigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were probablyextrapolated to tangent functions by Maslama. The development of astronomicaltables by him was a significant contribution to the science of astronomy. Thecontribution of Khawarizmi to geography is also out-standing, in that he not onlyrevised Ptolemy’s views on geography, but also corrected them in detail as wellas his map of the world. Several of his books were translated into Latin in theearly 12th century. In fact, his book on arithmetic, Kitab al-Jam’a wal-Tafreeq bilHisab al-Hindi, was lost in Arabic but survived in a Latin translation. His book onalgebra, al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, was also translated intoLatin in the 12th century, and it was this translation which introduced this newscience to the West. Several of his books were readily translated into a number of languages, and, in fact, became textbooks for universities till the 16th century.Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Ibn Sinan al-Battani al-Harrani. He was bornaround 858 C.E. in Harran, and according to one account, in Battan, a state of Harran. Battani was a famous astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. Hiswell-known discovery is the remarkably accurate determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds, which is very close tothe latest estimates. Al-Battani determined with remarkable accuracy the lengthof the seasons and the true and mean orbit of the sun. He proved, in sharpcontrast to Ptolemy, the variation of the apparent angular diameter of the sun andthe possibility of annular eclipses. In mathematics, he was the first to replace theuse of Greek chords by sine, with a clear understanding of their superiority. Healso developed the concept of co-tangent and furnished their table in degrees.He wrote a number of books on astronomy and trigonometry. His most famousbook was his astronomical treatise with tables, which was translated into Latin inthe 12th century and flourished as De scienta stellerum - De numeris stellerum etmotibus. An old translation of this is available at the Vatican. His Zij was, in fact,more accurate than all others written in his time. His treatise on astronomy wasextremely influential in Europe till the renaissance, with translations available inseveral languages. His original discoveries both in astronomy and trigonometrywere of great consequence in the development of these sciences later on.
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Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdullah ibn Sina. He was born in 980 C.E. in the village of Afshana near Bukhara which today is located in the far south of Russia. Ibn Sina,known in the west as Avicenna, would have been a giant among giants. Hedisplayed exceptional intellectual prowess as a child and at the age of ten wasalready proficient in the Quran and the Arabic classics. Al-Qifti states that IbnSina completed 21 major and 24 minor works on philosophy, medicine, theology,geometry, astronomy and the like. Another source (Brockelmann) attributes 99books to Ibn Sina including 16 on medicine, 68 on theology and metaphysics and11 on astronomy. Among his scientific works, the leading two are the Kitab al-Shifa (Book of Healing) and the al-Qanun al-Tibb which represents the Greco-Arabian thoughts on medicine. Amongst his prose works, after the great Qanun,the treatise on cardiac drugs, of which the British Museum possesses severalfine manuscripts, is probably the most important, but it remains unpublished. TheQanun distinguishes media-stinitis from pleurisy and recognises the contagiousnature of phthisis (tuberculosis of the lung) and the spread of diseases by water and soil. It gives a scientific diagnosis of ankylostomiasis and attributes thecondition to an intestinal worm. The Qanun points out the importance of dietetics,the influence of climate and environment on health and the surgical use of oralanaesthetics. Ibn Sina advised surgeons to treat cancer in its earliest stages,ensuring the removal of all the diseased tissue. The Qanun’s Materia Medicaconsiders some 760 drugs, with comments on their application and effectiveness.From the 12th-17th century, the Qanun served as the chief guide to medicalscience in the west and is said to have influenced Leonardo da Vinci. In thewords of Dr. William Osler, the Qanun has remained “a medical bible for a longer time than any other work.” Ibn Sina’s portrait hangs in the Hall of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris.Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham. He was one of the most eminent physicists,whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods are outstanding. Knownin the west as Alhazen, Ibn al-Haitham was born in 965 C.E. in Basrah, and waseducated in Basrah and Baghdad. He made a thorough examination of thepassage of light through various media and discovered the laws of refraction. Healso carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituentcolours. His book Kitab-al-Manadhir was translated into Latin in the Middle Ages,as also his book dealing with the colours of sunset. He dealt at length with the
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