The conversion of fixed DC voltage to an adjustable DC outputvoltage, through the use of semiconductor devices is calledchopping. A chopper is a
that converts fixed dc inputvoltage to a variable dc output voltage directly. It is a high speedon/off semiconductor switch (connects source to the load anddisconnects the load from the source at a fast speed).The power semiconductor device used for a chopper circuit can beforce commutated thyristor, power BJT, power MOSFET, GTO or IGBT.A chopper may be thought of as dc equivalent of an ac transformer since they behave in an identical manner. Like a transformer, achopper can be used to step down or step up the fixed dc inputvoltage.Chopper systems offer smooth control, high efficiency, fastresponse and regeneration.
Principle of Step Down operation
The step down chopper can be described by the following circuit;here a step down chopper with resistive load is shown.