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microwave and rader

microwave and rader

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Published by shobhit900

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: shobhit900 on Dec 28, 2009
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09/17/2014

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&Ha#F
K.Giridhar
 
rf,:w:,;sardRadar
MicrowaveiodesTransferredlectronevices
:i-,:upersCript::.;!:Sapplied:;i.i--hethinrc":::enefated
li:.:l,lllafdp+
ispace-charge
:-:;:!iecavity,
:-,:.rpedance9:"-po\\'erbyregionwitha constantelocityDo'of about107cm/secorsiliconeaddiode.Theieldemainsconstantatabout5KV/cmthroughouthespacehargeegion.Thetransit-timeorholesndriftregionof lengthL isgivenby
,=L
Dd
Theavalancheultiplicationactorsgivenby
.....(3.6)
I
1- (v/vo)"
appliedoltageavalanchereakdownvoltage
.....(3.7)
whereM
V=V.=
D
----*I
-__-*JI--l
3{::t-thanthe
-t--:-.-hthe^
:--:.rJtions::-ihishighr ,: :othep+
where
.....(3.8)
n=variesrom3 to6 forsiliconwhichdependsndopingof n*pjunctionpn=resistivityofsemiconductorFn=electronmobilitye.=dielectriconstantfsemiconductorE_u*=maximumelectricieldintensityatbreakdown3.8 IMPATTDIODEImpattdiodesaremanufacturedavingdifferentformssuchasn*pip*, p+nin*,p*nn*abruptunctionandp*i n*diodeconfiguration.hematerialusedormanufaiturefthesediodesreeitherGermanium,ilicon,GalliumArsenideGaAs)or IndiumphosphideInp).Outofthesematerials,ighestfficiency,igheroperatingrequencyndowernoisesobtainedwithGaAs'Butthe disadvantageithGaAsscomplexabricationrocessndhenceighercost.Figure3.10showsa reverseiased* pip*diodewithelectricieldvariation,opingconcentrationersusistancelot,themicrowaveoltagewingandhecuffentvariation.PrincipleofoperationWhena reverseiasvoltageexceedinghebreakdownoltagesapplied,highelectricfieldappearscrosshen+punction.Thishighieldntensitympartsufficientnergyo theholesandalsoo valencelectronso raisehemselvesntotheconductionand.Thisresultsinavalanchemultiplicationofhole-electronairs.Withsuitableopingprofiledesign,tispossibleo makeelectricieldtohavea verysharp eaknthe closeuicinityof theunctionresultingn"impactavalanchemultiplication".Thisisacumulative rotessesultingnrapidncreasefcarrierdensity.o preventhedioderomburning,a constantiassourcesusedomaintainaverageuffentatsafeimitIo. Thediodecurrentscontributedytheconductionlectronshichmoveothen* regionndtheassociatedoleswhichdrift throush
r\/ r-Pntn.lE-"^lt
Iv,l-
'D'2
.._-*
 
i-spacehargeegionothep* region,underhenfluenceofaowerbutsteadyelectricield'Thedrifttimeisgiven bY
t""1(:'q)'o=%
whereVos thedriftvelocityoftheholesandl'istheengthofthedriftregion'
VoltageSwing
(v*)
Dopingconcentrationijg*,"-alElecroncurrent"(t)
i,11
16r,12412a1
t
I
I
I
ElectricField
+I
I
""1",
MicrowavesandRadarllicrowaveDio&lii
thesteadyfidinfluencefQverysmall,cdavalanche.{and theosciQfield,thehobzeto.During{circuitwhichicorresPonrliphaseshiftHresistanceciangle0givellCombiinlFiguresimplifiedq
:
Therer{highpower{'
CONSTRT
'-
hId Ilr-
--{E\-tr
\TNN
f\\U
*1RN
\ t\\\\
\ I\\\T\. N\\\t
tTnmrrt
]TTIJIII.4
Figrrre3.10:IMPATTdiodedopingprohle andoperation
MECHANISMFOSCILLATIONSNoiseconsistsfvariousrequencyomponentstvaryingamplitudes'lgnabiaseddi"d;;;";;Jil;"aresonatolthennynoiseoltagepikecanriggeroscillationstafrequencyqualoheesonantrequencyfth"t"tonut*Th"t"oscillationsresustainedy

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