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Programming Languages and Lambda Calculi

Programming Languages and Lambda Calculi

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Published by: rama09999 on Apr 05, 2007
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04/03/2013

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Programming Languages and Lambda Calculi
(Summer 2006 Revised Version)
Matthias Felleisen Matthew Flatt
Draft:
July 12, 2006Copyrightc
1989, 2003, 2006 Felleisen, Flatt
 
2
 
Contents
1.1 Defining Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.2 Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3 Relations as Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4 Directed Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.5 Evaluation in Context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141.6 Evaluation Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151.7 Notation Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
-Calculus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.2
-Calculus Grammar and Reductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.3 Encoding Booleans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.4 Encoding Pairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.5 Encoding Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.6 Recursion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.6.1 Recursion via Self-Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.6.2 Lifting Out Self-Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.6.3 Fixed Points and the
Y
Combinator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.7 Reduction Strategy and Normal Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.8 History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.1 ISWIM Expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.2 ISWIM Reductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384.3 The
Combinator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.4 Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414.5 Consistency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414.6 Observational Equivalence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454.7 History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.1 Standard Reductions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.2 Proving the Standard Reduction Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.3 Observational Equivalence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

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