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Absence of Choice-Sexual Exploitation in China-2005

Absence of Choice-Sexual Exploitation in China-2005

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Categories:Types, Research, Law
Published by: bgeller4936 on Dec 29, 2009
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an absenceof choice
The sexual exploitation of North Koreanwomen in China
Norma Kang Muico Anti-Slavery International 2005
 
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the North Korean women who have agreed to beinterviewed for this report.We would also like to thank the following organisations for their assistanceand candour regarding their work on North Koreans in China: Citizens’ Alliancefor North Korean Human Rights (NKHR), Commission to Help North KoreanRefugees (CNKR), Durihana Mission, Good Friends, Korea Institute for NationalUnification (KINU), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and NK Gulag.Special thanks to Hwang Sun-young for helping with research, interviewtranscription and translation.Thanks also to Choi Soon-ho, a photojournalist at the
Chosun Daily 
newspaper in Seoul, South Korea, who kindly provided photos taken fromhis book entitled
Chinese-Korean Story 
(Minumsa 2004).The Rufford Maurice Laing Foundationkindly funded the research and productionof this report as well as connectedactivities to prompt its recommendations.
 
Anti-Slavery International
An Absence of Choice: The sexual exploitation of North Korean women in China
Contents
Page
What is trafficking?iWhat is a refugee?i
I. Introduction1
Historical background1Chronology of the food crisis1Flow of North Koreans into China1Consequences of deportation2Gender dimension2
II. Sexual Exploitation of North Korean Women3
Overview3Trafficking3Trafficking into forced marriage3Trafficking into sex industry5Consensual marriage6Vulnerability of irregular migrants7
III. Punishment upon Repatriation9
State security agency9Detention labour facilities10Infanticide and forced abortions11
IV. Legal Framework11
International law11North Koreans as economic migrants11North Koreans as refugees12UNHCR's position: people of serious concern13Binding arbitration13
V. Conclusion and Recommendations14
Endnotes15Map of the DPRK18

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