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The Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians

The Turkish Genocide Against the Armenians

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Published by bgeller4936

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Categories:Types, Research, Law
Published by: bgeller4936 on Dec 29, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/15/2013

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By Ervin Staub
 
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ERVIN STAUB is a scholar of genocide and a Professor of Psychology at the University ofMassachusetts, Amherst. He has conducted extensive research and published many articles onhelping, altruism, values, aggression, and motivation. He isauthor of the two-volume work
, Positive Social Behavior and Morality 
for which, in 1990, Professor Staub was awarded theIntercultural and International Relations Prize of the Society forthe Psychological Study of Social Issues (a division of theAmerican Psychological Association). Through a project inRwanda he is also associated with the Trauma, Research,Education and Training Institute in South Windsor, CT. He ispresident of the American Psychological Association's Societyfor the Study of Peace, Conflict and Violence and of theInternational Society for Political Psychology.As a six-year-old in Budapest, Hungary, Staub was first hiddento protect him from the Nazis, and then he and other familymembers survived with the protective passes Raoul Wallenberg(and then some other embassies in Budapest) created. Thisexperience led Staub to dedicate his life to understanding howto inspire people to help those in need. His primary research is on altruism and helpingbehavior, genocide and other collective violence. He has studied the psychology of helping,good and evil in human behavior, and the roots of genocide for many years, leading also to astudy of forgiveness and reconciliation. Currently, with a grant from the Campaign forForgiveness Research of the John Templeton Foundation, Staub has launched a researchproject in partnership with local organizations in Rwanda to explore healing, forgiveness, andreconciliation in the wake of collective violence in that country.Staub is also the author of
The Roots of Evil:The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence 
(1989
 ),
which inspired a television series broadcast on the Discovery Channel and the BBC.Among numerous other organizations and affiliations, he is also a member of the InternationalAssociation of Genocide Scholars.
 
An Introduction
 Excerpted From
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A central issue of our times is the murder, torture, and mistreatment of whole groups of people.The widespread hope and belief that human beings had become increasingly "civilized" wasshattered by the events of the Second World War, particularly the systematic, deliberateextermination of six million Jews by Hitler's Third Reich. Millions of other noncombatants werealso killed, systematically or randomly and carelessly.The destruction of human groups has a long history. In many ancient wars inhabitants of cities weremassacred, often with great brutality, and the cities razed to the ground. Many religious wars wereextremely brutal, if not genocidal. Our own century has witnessed, in addition to two world wars,mass killings by colonial powers, the genocide of the Armenians, and the mass destruction of lives inthe Soviet Union through repeated purges and deliberate starvation of peasants.Genocides, mass killings, and other cruelties inflicted on groups of people have not ceased since theSecond World War. Consider the millions killed by their own people in Cambodia and Indonesia, thekilling of the Hutu in Burundi, the Ibo in Nigeria, the Ache Indians in Paraguay, and the Buddhists inTibet, and the mass killings in Uganda. Dictatorial governments have recently tended to kill not onlyindividuals but whole groups of people seen as actual or potential enemies. This trend is evident inthe Argentine disappearances and the death squad killings in E1 Salvador and Guatemala.How can human beings kill multitudes of men and women, children and old people?* How does themotivation arise for this in the face of the powerful prohibition against murder that most of us aretaught? We must understand the psychological, cultural, and societal roots of genocide and masskilling if we are to stop such human destructiveness. As cultures, societies, and individual humanbeings we must learn how to live together in harmony and resist influences that turn us against eachother. My analysis is intended as a contribution to these goals.Genocide and war have much in common. In one, a society turns against a subgroup seen as aninternal enemy; in the other, a society turns against a group seen as an external enemy. Identifyingthe origins of genocide and mass killing will also help to enlighten us about sources of war, torture,and lesser cruelties such as group discrimination that can be steps to mass killing or genocide.Aggression, violence, torture, and the mistreatment of human beings are all around us. But kindness,helpfulness, generosity, and love also abound. Some Christians in Nazi-occupied Europe risked theirlives to save Jews and
 
other persecuted people. Many nations helped in response to starvation inCambodia at the end of the 1970s and Ethiopia in the mid 1980s, the destruction wrought byearthquake in Soviet Armenia in 1988, and other tragedies.This book presents a conception of how a subgroup of a society, whether historically established ornewly created (such as the “new people” in Cambodia, the name the Khmer Rouge gave the
 
*
On October 12, 1987, NBC news presented a program on the killing of children in our modern age. According to thisprogram, "Once children just died in the crossfire, now they are targets." While always among victims of genocide, in thelast twenty years children have increasingly become direct targets, killed in order to terrorize communities into politicalpassivity.

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