Editor’s Note: While the subject matter of this paper does not fall within the normal CERIS research mandate, which is
focussed on immigration and settlement issues in Ontario, including pan-Canadian perspectives, this paper is being published as part of the CERIS Working Paper series because it was presented at a CERIS Seminar on 19 October 2005. Nevertheless, most Canadian readers should find the discussion of the debate over the acceptance of dual citizenship inSweden to be of considerable interest in light of recent debates over this issue in Canada.
Citizenship, Migration, and Social Integration in Sweden:A Model for Europe?
Elena Dingu-KyrklundCentre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic RelationsStockholm University106 91 Stockholm, SwedenE-mail: Elena.Dingu-Kyrklund@ceifo.su.seABSTRACT
Transnational migration has been a constant element of human existence. Admission andintegration of migrants has, in time, become an increasingly important element of decision-making policies in many nations. Classifications of voluntary and involuntary migrants according to their reasons for migrating and the socio-economic and political reasons for the acceptance of suchindividuals by the receiving countries have been the object of numerous national and international pieces of legislation. This has served to underscore the importance of belonging for all partiesinvolved: both migrants (more or less welcome in their adoptive countries) and states alike. In aformal sense, the ultimate signal of unlimited acceptance remains the granting of citizenship byhis/her new country to the “adoptee-resident.” Only citizens normally enjoy an unconditional rightto live and reside without restrictions in a given country. Traditionally, this ultimate form of acceptance was (mutually) exclusive, which, for a long time, made it practically impossible for a person to be a citizen of more than one state. Gradual globalization and an unprecedenteddevelopment of the very concept of citizenship, from a horizontal, national perspective to anemerging vertical, supra-national level (consider, for example, the concept of EU-citizenship andthe special case of the Nordic states), required, at some point, a redefinition and re-evaluation of theconcept of citizenship, in both formal legal and more informal terms. This paper examines thisredefinition and re-evaluation within the context of Sweden.
(im)migration, integration, citizen(ship), naturalization, residents, immigration policy.