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Paper UHF RFID Reader

Paper UHF RFID Reader

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Published by: waqar_malik on Dec 29, 2009
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11/03/2012

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Design & Development of Low Cost UHF RFID Reader
215
Design & Development of Low Cost UHF RFID Reader
 
Lalit Kumar, Chandan Maity, Arivendu Bhardwaj, Adarsh Pillai, H.P. Srivastava,Rakesh Kumar
 
Abstract :
This paper describes the design & development of low cost Ultra HighFrequency (UHF) RFID Reader. It consists of three different modules Powersupply, Microcontroller and Transceiver. The transceiver module uses the UHFRFID reader chip to interface with microcontroller module and poweramplification module.
 
Keywords:
RFID - Radio Frequency Identification.
 1. Introduction
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an auto-ID technology that identifies any objectthat contains a coded tag. A UHF RFID system consists of a reader ( or interrogator) thattransmits information to a tag by modulating an RF signals in the 860MHz-960MHzfrequency range [1]. UHF RFID readers are becoming more highly integrated andinnovative. Reader integrated circuits (ICs) have come to lead the market for UHF RFID,enabling these technologies to be integrated into smaller, more power-efficient devices [3].The EPC global Gen 2 passive UHF RFID standard has proved to be functional and robust[2]. Department of Information Technology (DIT), Government of India, has sponsored aproject titled “National RFID Programme”, to popularize the use of RFID technology indifferent applications areas in the country. This is a multi-institution project involvingCDAC, Noida, IIT Kanpur and SAMEER, Mumbai. The current project on development of the reader was undertaken as part of this. The remaining sections of this paper areorganized as follows. Section 2 gives the detailed description of the UHF RFID reader.Section 3 gives the system interfaces to the external world and how it works in a network.Section 4 gives the costing aspects of the system being developed. Section 5 gives theperformance of the reader. Section 6 gives the conclusion.
2. Block Level Description Of System Developed
The low cost UHF RFID reader is designed using high speed ICs, RFID chip, passive andactive electronics components. A 32 bit microcontroller is used to control reader functionslike reading, writing of tags, adjust power gain etc [3]. UHF RFID reader is planned withthree modules viz. Power supply, Microcontroller and Transceiver. These are designed anddeveloped from initial stage i.e. from drawing schematics of circuit and development of Gerber data using art work generation then PCB fabrication and assembly of electronicscomponents and then finally burning the software and integration. The modules are furtherdescribed as follows.
2.1 Power Supply Module
 
The module (Figure 1) will act as a power supply unit for the reader as a whole. Thespecific voltages used in this whole design are 1.8V, 3.3V and 5V. The power supplyrequired to drive the ARM core and R1000 board is less than 2.2W. Power supply modulegenerates the various voltage nodes according to the board requirement of 3.3V, 1.8 V
 
Proceedings of ASCNT – 2009, CDAC, Noida, India, pp. 215 – 222
 
 
Lalit Kumar, Chandan Maity, Arivendu Bhardwaj, Adarsh Pillai, H.P. Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar
216
 
(figure 2). All the boards( MCU board, Transceiver board) normally need the voltage levelof 1.8 and 3.3V DC.
Fig.1.
Power supply module
Fig.2.
Block diagram of power supply moduleOnly the receiver section of R1000 chip needs 5V DC to drive high gain internal amplifierwhich has receiving sensitivity of arround -90 dBm.
2.2 Transceiver Module
The module (Figure 3) is the heart of the system with major components as INTEL R1000chip, Balun and Dielectric Band Pass Filter. Antenna Ports for transmission and receptionof signals are available on this module. The R1000 chip is the master chipfor UHF RFID reader.
Fig.3.
Transceiver Module
 
Design & Development of Low Cost UHF RFID Reader
217
Fig.4.
Block diagram of transceiver moduleIt has a analog processing unit for analog RF front-end tightly coupled with digital back-end for host connectivity (Figure 4). Digital configurable registers control the R1000 chipto operate in various architecture of UHF protocol. R1000 incorporates the completetransmit, receive, modulation, demodulation and baseband functions into one chip.
2.3 Microcontroller Module
 
A microcontroller contains a processor core, memory, and programmable input/outputperipherals.
Fig.5.
Block diagram of microcontroller moduleThis has ATMEL’s AT91SAM7S256 with ARM7 core as microcontroller. It will supportthe total firmware of the system which includes the Boot up, the mode of work of thereader, configuration setting of the registers etc.MCU board is the heart of the reader. Itcontrols the R1000 based transceiver board. All the data and commands are being sent andreceived through 20 MHz SPI buss. The EPC-C1G2/ISO 16k6c protocol stack runs at theARM7 core which is basically the AT91SAM7S256, the ARM7 product of Atmel. TheMCU board behaves like an interfacing buffer between R1000 chip and host (normally thePC).
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