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NASA Report - Air Launching Manned Spacecraft - X-20 Dyna Soar

NASA Report - Air Launching Manned Spacecraft - X-20 Dyna Soar

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Published by Orion2015
NASA Report - Air Launching Manned Spacecraft - X-20 Dyna Soar. Preliminary performance analysis of air launching manned orbital vehicles. Contains drawings of the X-20 Dyna Soar attached to various air launched space boosters. Published by NASA in 1962.
NASA Report - Air Launching Manned Spacecraft - X-20 Dyna Soar. Preliminary performance analysis of air launching manned orbital vehicles. Contains drawings of the X-20 Dyna Soar attached to various air launched space boosters. Published by NASA in 1962.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Orion2015 on Dec 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/02/2011

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1T
b
NATIONAL
AERONAUTICS
AND
SPACE
ADMINISTRATION
H
2
2
9
TECHNICAL
MEMORANDUM
x-636
4
PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE APJALYSIS
OF
AIR
LAUNCHING
MANNED
ORBITAL
VEHICLES*By Donald
R.
Bellman and Harold P. Washington
SUMMARY
A
preliminary performance analysis
was
made to determine thecapability of large subsonic and supersonic bombers for
air
launchingmanned hypersonic and satellite vehicles. The bombers considered nowexist or are being developed in the United States. Four boosterconfigurations were used in the calculations,with
a
winged rehicle ofthe Dyna-Soar type
as
the payload.Comparisons were made on the basis
of
vacuum specific impulse, burnout velocity, ratio of payload weightto launch-package gross weight, and structural weight.The study showed that booster packages weighing no more than
200,000
pounds
are
capable of accelerating
a
10,000-pound wingedvehicle to orbital velocity after being launched eastward from
a
subsonic bomber,
if
a
vacuum specific impulse of about
335
seconds canbe achieved
in
the booster engines.
It
was
also found that
a
1-percent variation in vacuum specificimpulse from
a
nominal value of
320
seconds results in approximately
a
1-percent variation in burnout velocity; whereas
,
n increase to
6
percent in the ratio of payload weight to launch-package gross weightfrom
a
nominal value of
5
percent decreases the burnout velocity by
1,400
feet per second.
It
was
determined also that the high drag of the booster packagerequired to
fit
thesupersonic-launch airplane offsets the performanceadvantage of launching supersonically rather than subsonically.
 
2
INTRODU
CTI
ON
The use of winged recoverable vehicles propelled by efficient
air-
breathing engines
as
first-stage boosters for hypersonic and satellitevehicles has considerable merit, ranging from reduced booster cost when
a
large number of launches are to be made to increased operationalversatility.sounding rockets has been frequently advocated.
A
discussion of thetechnique
is
presented in references
1
and 2. Launching
a
body into anearth orbit by such means
was
proposed in
1956
by
A.
C.
Robotti, whobased his calculations on
anF-102
airplane(ref.
3).
Air
launching
is
also the objective of the more recent Project Caleb, conducted by the
U.
S.
Navy,
in which F4D and F4H airplanes are used (ref.
4).
The use of this technique for launching upper-atmosphere
For
many years the air-launching technique
was
used to launch the
X-1,
X-2,
and
D-558-11
aircraft and
is
now being used with the
X-15
research airplanes. The resultant gains in performance and operationalsafety have been appreciable.
To
air-launch manned satellite vehicles,however,
will
require much greater launch-package weight. Some analystshave proposed the construction of large, specially built airplanespropelled by turbojet and ram-jet engines for boosting satellite vehiclesof such size that they could be manned (refs.
5
and
6).
enormous cost and the time that would be required to developsuch
air-
planes,
it
is
believed expedient to explore the capabilities of thelarger bombersthat now exist or are being developed in the UnitedStates.analytical study of the performance of satellite vehicles launched fromtwo of these bombers. Similar studies have also been made by otherinvestigators (ref.
7,
for example).Because of thePresented in this paper are the results of
a
preliminary
In
the investigaticn, most of the launches were made
at
a
highsubsonic Mach number; however, to show the effect of launch speed andaltitude
a
few launches were made
at
a
Mach number of
3.
Altitudeswere chosen that were appropriate to the speed and type of airplanebeing considered.using four different booster configurations. Although
a
payload weightof 10,000 pounds
was
used for most of the calculations, lighterandheavier weights were also investigated.Launch-package weights ranged up
to
200,000
poundsThe launch o0p o
 
H
2
2
9
3
of nitrogen tetroxide and mixed hydrazine fuel
as
the propellant.
A
range of vacuum specific impulse from
300
seconds to
340
seconds
was
chosen in order to cover the practical values of this propellant combi-nation and to show the effect of vacuum specific impulse on vehicleperformance
.
Calculations were made
at
the
NASA
Flight Research Center, Edwards,
Calif.
considered the curvatureofthe earth, but not the earth's rotation.
An
IBM
650
digital computer was used with
a
program thatSYMBOLS
ax
longitudinal acceleration,
g
units
CD
drag coefficient, based on a reference area of
330
sq
ft
lift-coefficient variation with angle of attack
CLa
D
drag, lb
F
thrust,
lb
ggv
2
local acceleration of gravity, ft/seccentripe
al
acceleration,
ft
s
c
2
h altitude,
ft
1;
rate
of change of altitude with time,ft/secvacuum specific impulse, sec
I
P
L
lift,
lb
M
Mach numberP ambient pressure, lb/sq
ft
q
dynamic pressure, lb/sq ft
r
radius of the earth,
ft
1.
S
total wing area,
sq
ft
t
time, sec

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