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ONE-

Add Maths Formulae List: Form 4 (Update 18/9/08)

01

Functions

Absolute Value FunctionInverse Function

f

(

x

), if

f

(

x

)

≥

0

f

(

x

)

−

f

(

x

), if

f

(

x

)

<

0

If

y

=

f

(

x

)

, then

f

−

1

(

y

)

=

x

Remember:Object = the value of

x

Image = the value of

y

or

f

(

x

)

f

(

x

) map onto itself means

f

(

x

) =

x

02 Quadratic

Equations

General Form

ax

2

+

bx

+

c

=

0

were

a,

an

c

are constants an

a

≠

0.

Quadratic Formula

2

x

=−

b

±

b

−

4

ac

2

a

When the equation can not be factorized.

Forming Quadratic Equation From its Roots:

If α and

β

are the roots of a quadratic equation

α

+

β

= −

b

αβ

=

c

a

a

The Quadratic Equation

x

2

−

(

α

+

β

)

x

+

αβ

=

0

or

x

2

−

(

SoR

)

x

+

(

PoR

)

=

0

Nature of Roots

b

2

−

4

ac

>

0

⇔

two real and different roots

b

2

−

4

ac

= 0

⇔

two real and equal roots

b

2

−

4

ac

<

0

⇔

no real roots

b

2

−

4

ac

≥

0

⇔

the roots are real

ONE-

03 Quadratic

Functions

General Form

f

(

x

)

=

ax

2

+

bx

+

c

where

a, b

, and

c

are constants and

a

≠

0.*Note that the highest power of an unknown of aquadratic function is

2

.

a

>

0

⇒

minimum

⇒ ∪

(smiling face)

a

<

0

⇒

maximum

⇒ ∩

(sad face)

Completing the square:

f

(

x

)

=

a

(

x

+

p

)

2

+

q

(i)the value of

x

,

x

= −

p

(ii)min./max. value =

q

(iii)min./max. point =

(

−

p

,

q

)(iv)equati

on of axis of symmetry,

x

= −

p

Alternative method:

f

(

x

)

=

ax

2

+

bx

+

c

Quadratic Inequalities

a

>

0 and

f

(

x

)

>

0

a

>

0 and

f

(

x

)

<

0

abab x

<

a

or

x

>

ba

<

x

<

b

Nature of Roots

b

2

−

4

ac

>

0

⇔

intersects two different pointsat

x

-axis

b

2

−

4

ac

=

0

⇔

touch one point at

x

-axis

b

2

−

4

ac

<

0

⇔

does not meet

x

-axis

04 Simultaneous

Equations

To find the intersection point

⇒

solves simultaneous equation.Remember: substitute linear equation into non- linear equation.

ONE-

05 Indices and

Logarithm

Fundamental if Indices

Zero Index,

a

0

=

1

Negative Index,

a

−

1

=

1

a

(

a

)

−

1

=

bba

1

Fractional Index

a

n

=

n

a

m

a

n

=

n

Laws of Indices

a

m

×

a

n

=

a

m

+

n

a

m

÷

a

n

=

a

m

−

n

(

a

m

)

n

=

a

m

×

n

(

ab

)

n

=

a

n

b

n

a

a

n

( )

n

=

b

b

n

Fundamental of Logarithm

log

a

y

=

x

⇔

a

x

=

y

log

a

a

=

1log

a

a

x

=

x

log

a

1

=

0

Law of Logarithm

log

a

mn

=

log

a

m

+

log

a

n

log

m

=

log

m

−

log

n

a

n

a

a

log

a

m

n

= n

log

a

m

Changing the Base

log

b

=

log

c

b

a

log

a

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