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Have You Caught a Lot of Shrimps? (in the Research

Have You Caught a Lot of Shrimps? (in the Research

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Published by: huynhvankiet on Dec 31, 2009
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Expected Activities of the Fisheries Divisionof JIRCASDevelopment of Drought-Tolerant Rice Varietiesfor AfricaToward an Efficient Beef Cattle Production byImproved Pasture of Elite
Varieties in the Tropics Approaches Suitable for Nurturing IndigenousTree Species in Northeast ThailandBiological Control of the Invasive Insect Pest,
Brontispa longissima
, which Damages theCoconut TreeJ-FARD & JIRCAS International SymposiumJAPAN-CGIAR Fellowship Program 2007-2008
Have you caught a lot of shrimps? (In the research site for freshwater shrimps in Na Pho Village, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR)
(Photo by S. Ito)
People in the world obtain approximately 16% of animal protein requirement from fisheries or aquaticproducts. The demand for fish and other aquatic resourcesis expected to further increase hereafter due to the risingpreference of Westerners for fisheries products as healthfoods and the fast growth of the world population.The production of fish and fisheries products indeveloped countries has been decreasing since 1980, whiletheir exports in 2003 have increased 1.5 times as comparedto 1980. On the other hand, in developing countries bothproduction and exports of these products have increasedtwofold from 1980 to 2003. This reflects the fact that thetotal exports of developing countries have reached almost50% of the total world exports. In the near future, theexports share of developing countries will surely exceed thatof developed countries. These show that the exportation of fisheries products, especially in developing countries,strengthened its role in obtaining foreign currency (ref.:“Current status of international fisheries resources” in thewebsite of the Japanese FisheriesAgency).Accordingly, the role of the Fisheries Division of JIRCAS, which implements studies for development of sustainable fishery technologies in developing countries,will hereafter become more important.By the way, fisheries as a whole include capturefisheries and culture fisheries or aquaculture. Capturefisheries are similar to the activities of hunting or collectionof wild plants on land since these industries collect naturalbiological resources such as finfish, shellfish and seaweedsfrom natural waters. In contrast, aquaculture is similar toagriculture on land, since it produces these products underartificially controlled environment. These are thecharacteristics of fisheries.World fisheries (capture fisheries and aquaculture)production reached a total of 140.5 million tons in 2004and is still increasing (Fig. 1). Although, capture fisheries,especially marine capture fisheries production, are levelingoff recently. However, they still account for 61% of globalfisheries production. Thus, marine capture fisheriesresources are still important for us. In contrast, both marineand inland aquaculture productions are increasing year byyear and accounting for the increase in the total globalfisheries production. Aquaculture production currentlyaccounts for 32% of world fisheries production and isslightly increasing the ratio. In addition, aquaculture hasgrown most rapidly compared to every other animal food-producing sector with global annual growth rate of 8.8%per year since 1970.Against this background, appropriate aquatic stocmanagement for sustainable use so as not to depletefisheries resources by overfishing is required in marinecapture fisheries, whose production level is now levelingoff. Development of eco-friendly sustainable culturetechnology which minimizes theenvironmental load is likewiserequired in aquaculture, which needsadvancement for further increase inits production.The Fisheries Division of JIRCAS is now implementing thefollowing three projects under thecurrent Second Medium Term Plan(FY 2006-2010), in collaborationwith domestic and foreign research institutes, to meet theabovementioned needs or requirements:.1. Research for suitable stock management in tropical/ subtropical areas2. Development of aquaculture technologies suitablefor Southeast Asia3. Technology to control reproduction in commerciallyimportant shrimp and prawn speciesAlthough the explanation of these projects is omittedbecause of limitation of space, the Research Highlights of Projects 1 and 2 appeared in JIRCAS Newsletter No. 51and No. 48, respectively, and that of Project 3 will appearin a coming issue of the same Newsletter. Please refer tothem for more details and check the JICAS website withlink below:(http://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/english/research/activites/project/pro01G-01.html)These projects are in their second year of implementation now and some significant results have beensteadily obtained so far. Please expect the forthcomingfinal outputs soon.
Shoji Kitamura Director, Fisheries Division, JIRCAS
   1   9   9   2   1   9   9  4   1   9   9   6   1   9   9   8   2   0   0   0   2   0   0   2   2   0   0  4
   P  r  o   d  u  c   t   i  o  n   (  m   i   l   l   i  o  n   t  o  n  s   )
Inland aquacultureMarine aquacultureInland captureMarine capture
 JIRCAS Newsletter No.52 2008
ExpectedActivities of the Fisheries Division of JIRCAS
Fig. 1. World fisheries production
Photo 1. Drought-tolerant variety (Right) and
susceptible variety (Left)Photo 2. Candidate variety: Deep Root System
rice, Malagkit Pirurutong
Development of Drought-Tolerant Rice Varieties forAfrica
 JIRCAS Newsletter No.52 2008
In Sub-Saharan Africa, the demand for rice has beengrowing due to the rapid population growth as well as theincreasing rate of urbanization in the region. Rice in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely growing under rainfed condition,relying only on natural precipitation. Upland rice,accounting for 40% of total production area in theseregions, has been hampered by a number of constraintsincluding biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the abioticstresses, drought is very destructive and it causes greatlosses of yield. Therefore, developing drought tolerancehas been regarded as one of the urgent breeding targets inrice breeding for Africa.The Africa Rice Center (WARDA) has developed 18upland NERICA (New Rice for Africa) varieties throughinterspecific hybridizations between
Oryza sativa
Although these 18 upland NERICA varietiesare carrying the trait of adaptability to the upland riceecosystem in general, higher level of drought tolerancewould be required in rice for Africa, if we recall the harshnature of the ecosystem in the Sub-Saharan region. In theJIRCAS project, “Stress-Tolerant Rice for Africa”, severaldifferent approaches have been taken to tackle theproblems. Among them, the screening and selection of awide range of existing rice germplasm for droughttolerance, which have been conducted in collaboration withWARDA, will be introduced in this article.For evaluation of drought tolerance at the seedlingstage, diverse genetic resources which can be regarded toessentially cover the different genetic variations of ricewere cultivated in experimental fields at multiple locations(Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire and Ibadan, Nigeria). The irrigationwas interrupted 14 days after seeding and water stress wasapplied. Responses of shoots under drought stress weremonitored and drought-tolerant varieties were selected(Photo 1). As outputs, several accessions were selected aspromising varieties. While the shoots of susceptiblevarieties had completely welted, the selected promisingvarieties maintained healthy shoots even after theapplication of drought stress. Now, genetic mapping of thedrought tolerance of these candidates is undergoing toidentify the DNA markers linked to drought tolerance at theseedling stage.It is well accepted that drought tolerance is verycomplex and many traits are involved in the expression of this trait of tolerance. Thus, the evaluation and selection of drought tolerance is not easy. Among the many traitsbelieved to be correlated with drought tolerance, root depthcan be specifically pointed out (Yoshida and Hasegawa,1982) because deep roots have higher probability to be ableto access water in deep soil layers.A wide range of rice germplasm was subjected toscreening for root depth at the reproductive stage underfield conditions. These germplasm were the same as thoseused for the screening of drought tolerance at seedlingstage. At 14 days after heading, root lengths weremonitored by core sampling method. Based on all theoutputs from multiple locations (Bamako, Mali, andIbadan, Nigeria) and multi-year trials within 3 years, therice varieties, Malagkit Pirurutong (Photo 2) from thePhilippines and Khao Dam from Laos, stably exhibitedcharacteristics of deep rooting throughout the trials. Now,the root development of these candidate varieties undersoils with different water contents and reactions to droughtstress is being further investigated.The tangible outputs of this particular project arecredited to the identification of drought-tolerant germplasmand the acquisition of DNA markers linked to the tolerance.These research outputs/assets are anticipated to be appliedefficiently towards practical breeding programs aimed atthe development of drought-tolerant rice for Africa.
 Hiroshi Tsunematsu Biological Resources Division, JIRCAS(Stationed at Nigeria Station ofWARDA)

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