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The Gas TurbineII

The Gas TurbineII

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Published by: kurdufani21 on Dec 31, 2009
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9
Chapter II
The Gas Turbine
Abstract –
This chapter serves to introduce the dynamic modelling of gas turbines,beginning with an outline of their construction and operation. A review of the work  previously conducted in this field is then presented, which examines both the modelsderived and the engine testing methods employed. Attention is paid to modelling thebasic dynamic response of the engine and to modelling thermal effects during largetransient manoeuvres. The limitations of previous work are highlighted and the overallaims of the present work are defined.
 
2.1 Introduction
10
2.1 Introduction
The modelling of gas turbines has been the subject of considerable study since the earlydays of jet propulsion. The development of aircraft gas turbines can be traced back tothe 1930’s, with the simultaneous development of jet engine technology in Britain andGermany. The first operational jet engine was built by a British team headed by Frank Whittle and tested in April 1937. This led to the development of an experimentalaircraft, the Gloster E28/29, which first flew in May 1941. Meanwhile, Hans von Ohainand Max Hahn were developing a similar engine for the Heinkel aircraft company andthe first flight of the He-178 took place in August 1939. A comprehensive overview of gas turbine development has been presented in Ohain (1996).Gas turbines are now extensively used in aero, marine and industrial applications. Gasturbines are even finding application in a new generation of low-emission electric cars,tested by Volvo (Vernet, 1994).
2.2 Gas Turbines
A basic gas turbine engine consists of a compressor, a combustor, and a turbine inseries. Intake air is compressed by the compressor and delivered to the combustor atconsiderably increased pressure and temperature. In the combustion chamber, thepressurised air is mixed with fuel and the mixture is ignited, producing a further rise intemperature and hence an expansion of gases. These gases then expand through theturbine, which is designed to extract sufficient energy from them to keep thecompressor rotating, so that the engine is self-sustaining. The engine efficiency isimproved by increasing the overall compressor pressure ratio, which is achieved using atwin-spool design, in which both the compressor and turbine are split into high (HP) andlow pressure (LP) stages. The Rolls Royce Spey MK202 engine tested in this work is anexample of a twin-spool engine, a schematic of which is shown in Figure 2-1. The HPturbine drives the HP compressor and the LP turbine drives the LP compressor. These
 
2.2 Gas Turbines
11
are connected by concentric shafts, which rotate at different speeds, referred to as
 N 
 H 
and
 N 
 L
. The simplest form of gas turbine is known as a
turbojet 
, where all the intake airpasses through the engine core. Such engines have a small frontal area and high jetvelocity, making them suitable for use in high-speed aircraft. The Spey MK202 is anexample of a
turbofan
engine, which is a comparatively small engine by modernstandards and can produce about 55KN of thrust without reheat. Although it is no longerin service it has the same basic architecture, for purpose of control, as that of moremodern engines such as the EJ200, which is used to power the Eurofighter (Dadd
et al
.,1996). In Figure 2-1, it can be seen that only part of the air entering the engine passesthrough the HP compressor and the combustion chamber, while the remainder by-passesthe engine core. The ratio between the mass flow of air in the by-pass duct and in thecore is termed the
by-pass
ratio. The Spey has a by-pass ratio of only 0.6, while manymodern commercial engines, such as the Rolls-Royce Trent, have by-pass ratios as highas 4.8. The by-pass air reduces the overall jet velocity, which leads to lower noiselevels, along with better efficiency and reduced fuel consumption.The Spey engine also incorporates a number of additional features associated withmodern military gas turbines. Variable
inlet guide vanes
(VIGV’s) control the angle atwhich the air flows into the HP compressor and these are adjusted in relation to theengine speed, in order to improve engine performance. A variable area
reheat nozzle
atthe engine output allows additional fuel to be injected into the hot exhaust gases, toproduce additional thrust when required. Finally, an adjustable HP
compressor 
 
bleed val
ve allows the mass flow through the later compressor stages to be reduced, in orderto lower the pressure ratio across the compressor and prevent it from going into surge atlow speeds. A surge condition is reached when the pressure difference across thecompressor is too great, for a given engine speed and mass flow, which causes a violentbreak-down of air flow within that compressor. The hot high-pressure gases in theengine core can then reverse their direction of motion and surge backwards through thecompressor. When the pressure in the combustion system is relieved, the compressorcan recover. This cycle is repeated and there is a major risk of mechanical damage to

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