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cours 2eme parti

# cours 2eme parti

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02/01/2013

Bdmagmcn ^ceoxx K| 9O=
=
Aox ohm|~czox xo hm|mhzî|nxoez pm| am p|îxoehoj  e o oewoacppo jîanfnzmez ao ec~m c|kmenzo
nejnwnjmanxî oz clxo|wî poejmez a„nezo|pdmxo \$pî|ncjo }n xîpm|o < jnwnxncex hoaaamn|ox xhhoxxnwox.
N%
Hm|mhzä|o kîeî|mt j ec~m nezo| pdmxn}o
C|kmenzo wcafneot xpdî|n}o à cwcãjo pm|gcnx aclî \$k aclo lameh. anfnzî pm| eo fofl|meo
ehaîmn|o }n anfnzo ao Ehaîcpamxfo c xo z|cwo ao fmzî|noa kîeîzn}o \$hd|cfmzneo oz
ehaîcao.
Kîeî|maofoez aox hoaaaox pcxxäjoez = xoa ec~m! hopoejmez am hoaaao dîpmzn}o p|îxoezo <
ec~mt! am gnl|o fxhamn|o
NN%
Hcexznzmez ehaîmn|o
=% Oewoacppo ehaîmn|o
_eo othoaaoezo lm||nä|o oez|o ao h~zcxca oz ao Ehaîcpamxfo! oaao oxz hcfpcxî j„eo jclao
hchdo anpnjn}o xîpm|î pm| e oxpmho pî|nehaomn|o %am fofl|meo otzo|eo oxz oe hceznenzî
mwoh ao \îznemhaf oejcpamxfn}o |kot oz xcwoez pm|xofîo jo |nlcxcfox! am
fofl|meo nezo|eo oxz gmnzo jo xz|hz|o gnl|oxo
Am fofl|meo otzo|eo oxz oe hceznenzî mwoh am fofl|meo nezo|eo m enwom jox pm|cnx
ehaîmn|ox! hox jo|eno|x xcez hcfpcxî jo p|czîneox! jnxpcxî oe hm||omt oz hcez|úao
mhznwofoez ao pmxxmko jo xlxzmehox oez|o ao h~zcpamxfo oz am Ehaîcpamxfo jmex aox < xoex
<% Ehaîcpamxfo
Na oxz |nhdo oe hmznce \$Em<"!Hm<"!FK"".!ce ~ z|cwo îkmaofoez jox gnl|ox jo p|czîneox
xcalaox oe oey~fo jox fîzmlcanxfo eîhoxxmn|o m am x~ezdoxo jox mhnjox ehaîn}ox
oz jox ehaîcznjox gc|enxxo| j„îeo|kno \$Mzp!Kzp!Hzp!_zp.
8% Hd|cfmzneo
H„oxz eo xlxzmeho hcexznzî oxxoeznoaaofoez j„Mje jo p|czîneox lmxn}ox mppoaîox
dnxzceox oz jox p|czîneox ece lmxn}ox
Jot z~pox jo hd|cfmzneo powoez éz|o jnxznekîx
Ohd|cfmzneo 9 xm xz|hz|o oxz jo kaclmaofoez hcejoexî po|fozzmez a„otp|oxxnce
kîeîzn}o \$hc||oxpcej mt käeox mhzng jo am hoaaao.
Dîzî|chd|cfmzneo 9 gmhazmzng oz oe yceo j„MJE x~ezdîzmxo 6dozo|‧ hcexznzznwo.
:% Ehaîcao
Xz|hz|o joexo oz xpdî|n}o }n em pmx jo fofl|meo %ao ecfl|o oz am zmnaao xcez
wm|nmlao oz jîpoejoez jox z~pox jo hoaaaox oz jo a„mhznwnzî jo x~ezdäxo jox p|czîneox
}nzzo ao hoez|o jo x~ezdäxo jox |nlcxcfox \$hcexznzî jo p|îh|xo| jo |nlcxcfox
nemhdowîo.%
Jmex eo hoaaao dfmneo ao poznz ehaîcao xo gc|foez! mkfoezoez |mpnjofoez jo
zmnaao pc| gxnceeo| oe = xoa k|mej ehaîcao z~pn}o j„eo hoaaao oe nezo|pdmxo%
Am gc|fmznce jox |nlcxcfox jmex ao ehaîcao x„oggohzo oe paxno|x îzmpox }n xo
jî|caoez jmex aox yceox gnl|naamn|ox k|meamn|ox
Ozmpo =9 A M J E hcjmez aox M\E| oxz z jo |mexh|nz oe e p|îM\E| hozzo îzmpo
xo pmxxo jmex am yceo gnl|naamn|o j ehaîcao%
Ozmpo < 9ao p|oM\E oxz oexnzo jîhcpî oe 8 M\E|
Ozmpo 8 9 xnfazmeîfoez jmex ao Ehaîcpamxfo jo a„MJE hcjmez aox p|czîneox
hcexznzznwox jox |nlcxcfox oxz z|mexh|nz oe M\Ef
Ozmpo : 9A„M\E foxxmko| oxz z|mjnz oe p|czîneox jmex ao h~zcpamxfo
Bdmagmcn ^ceoxx K| 9O=
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Ozmpo ? 9aox p|czîneox z|mjnzox |oxzoez jmex ao ec~m oz jmex ao ehaîcao oaao
x„mxxchnoez mwoh aox M\E |nlcxcfnmt pc| z|mexgc|fo| jox |nlcxcfox%
Ozmpo 7 9 aox |nlcxcfox |ogc|fî xc|zoez j ec~m oz fnk|oez jmex ao
h~zcpamxfo oz icoez ao| |úaox%
NNN%
C|kmenxmznce jo a„MJEe  h a î m n | o
A„MJE oxz e pca~fä|o hcfpcxî jo paxno|x ehaîcznjox m||mekî xoace e c|j|o p|îhnx
%a„oexoflao jo hox ehaîcznjox |op|îxoezo a„negc|fmznce kîeîzn}o pc|zî pm| aox
hd|cfcxcfox à a„nezî|no| j ec~m%
Am fcaîhao J„MJE j„eo ohm|~czo aceko jcnz xln| jox |opanofoezx jox hcfpmhzncex pc|
xo hcezoen| jmex aox ec~mt! ho pdîecfäeo oxz mxx|î pm| jox p|czîneox xpîhnmanxî \$Dnxzceox.
=% Dnxzceox
Ho xcez jox poznzox p|czîneox! hdm|kî pcxnznwofoez hoam po|foz jo xo ano| gc|zofoez
oz hcexzmffoez à a„MJE \$jox ehaîc gnamfoezx. oz xcez mnexn xxhopznlao jo ico| e
|úao nfpc|zmez
Ce jnxzneko ? z~pox j„dnxzceox jmex am hoaaao ohm|~czo gc|fmez < k|cpox
jnggî|oezx
Dnxzceox ehaîcxcfn}o 9 poznzox p|czîneox Chzmfä|o j„dnxzceox jo
xz|hz|o \$D<M!D<L !D8oz D:.
Dnxzceox D= 9 |oxpcexmlao jo a„ofpnaofoez jox ehaîcxcfox
<% Ehaîcxcfo
_e ehaîcxcfo oxz eo hcfpaoto jo p|czîneo Chzmfä|o j„dnxzceox jo xz|hz|o
\$D<M!D<L!D8!D:oz j„MJE }n |îxazo jo am hcfpmhznce jo am hd|cfmzneo m xone j
ec~m%
A„MJE x„oe|cao mzc| j hc|px chzmfî|n}o gc|fmez eo xcx enzî kaclamn|o
\$ehaîcxcfo6=0ef. oz am xz|hz|o mjcpzî pm| a„otofpao jox ehaîcxcfox jceeo à
am hd|cfmzneo xce mppm|oeho jo hcaano| jo po|aox |îkanä|ofoez oxpmhî ao acek j
gnamfoez pm| e xokfoez j„MJE nezo| ehaîcxcfn}o ao ano |nlcehaîn}o oz ao
ehaîcxcfo hcexznzoez ao ehaîcxcfo oezno| hcfpcxî jo <00 pmn|ox jo lmxox
j„MJE%
A„m||mekofoez jox ehaîcxcfox xlnz <îfo îzmpo jo hcfpmhznce à a„mnjo jo am
p|czîneo dnxzceo D= oz gc|fo eo gnl|o jo hd|cfmzneo hcejoexîo oz a„clznoez j„e
hd|cfcxcfo |îxazo j„e jok|î jo |opanofoez pax îaowî! hoam eo x„clxo|wo }„m
fcfoez jo am jnwnxnce jo am hoaaao% M am gne jo am jnwnxnce ao hd|cfcxcfo xo
jîhcejoexo%
8% Hd|cfcxcfo
Hdm}o hd|cfcxcfo hceznoez p|clmlaofoez eo aceko fcaîhao j„MJE hcejoexî
oz c|kmenxî oe xî|no jo l|cehdox pc| x„mixzo| jmex ao ec~m%aox hd|cfcxcfox eo
xcez wnxnlao }„m hc|x jo am fnzcxo \$ofpnaofoez jox ehaîcxcfox pm| a„dnxzceo D=.
Mp|ox ao| |îpanhmznce poejmez a„nezo|pdmxo j h~hao hoaaamn|o! aox hd|cfcxcfox xcez
hcfpcxîx jo < hcpnox njoezn}o jo hd|cfmznjox! mzzmhdîox oez|o oaaox m enwom
j„eh o e z | c f ä | o
A„oxpäho dfmneo oe hcfpzo :7 <8 pmn|ox jcez << xcez jox hd|cfcxcfox
dcfcackox \$mzcxcfox. !am jo|enä|o pmn|o hc||oxpcej m jot hd|cfcxcfox
xotoaaox \$kcecxcfox. %aox hd|cfcxcfox dfmneox xcez efî|czî jo = à << j pax
acek m pax poznz%
Bdmagmcn ^ceoxx K| 9O=
8
NW%
Mhznwnzî j ec~m
Ao ec~m hcez|úao aox fcwofoezx hoaaamn|o! am ez|nznce oz am x~ezdäxo jox p|czîneox
eîhoxxmn|o à am h|cnxxmeho oz m am jnwnxnce hoaaamn|o %Ao ec~m xzchbo a„negc|fmznce kîeîzn}o
\$MJE. à z|mwo|x am}oaao hcez|úao a„oexoflao jox mhznwnzîx%
Hozzo negc|fmznce kîeîzn}o oxz z|mexfnxo j„eo kîeî|mznce m eo mz|o pm| jîjclaofoez
j„MJE m hc|x jox jnwnxncex hoaaamn|ox am x~ezdäxo jox p|czîneox xo gmnz m < îzmpox
Z|mexh|npznce oz z|mjhznce pm| jnggî|oez z~po j„M\E
=%\îpanhmznce j„MJE
Am hoaaao jclao xm }meznzî j„MJE oz xo p|îpm|o m am jnwnxnce! poejmez a„nezo|pdmxo
fcaîhaox j„MJE xo jî|caoez oz jceeoez jot l|nex xo|wmez jo fmz|nho pc| am
x~ezdäxo j„e ecwom l|ne hcfpaîfoezmn|o oxz îkmao h„oxz am |ohceemnxxmeho jo
hdm}o fcaîhao j„MJE pm| e ehaîcznjo hcfpaîfoezmn|o !pnx pca~fî|nxmznce jo
ho jo|eno| pm| a„MJEp c a~ f î | m x o jmex ao xoex ?„58„ !am |îpanhmznce hcffoeho à jox
oej|cnz p|îhnx !gc|hdo jo |îpanhmznce oz p|ck|oxxo jmex aox jot xoex !ce jnz }o am
|îpanhmznce jox MJE oxz lnjn|ohznceeoaao hozzo gcehznce j„MJE xo gmnz oe 8 ozmpox
jnggî|oezx! nenznmznce îacekmznce oz zo|fnemnxce %
m. Nenznmznce
Am gc|hdo jo |îpanhmznce oxz h|îî pm| a„mhznce jox dîanhmxo }n xîpm|mez aox < l|nex jo
am jclao dîanho j„MJE oe l|nxmez aox anmnxcex d~j|ckäeox e hcfpaoto j„oey~fo
zcpcãxcfî|mxo = oz < nezo|wnoez = pc| gmhnanzo| a„îacekmznce jo am gc|hdo jo
|îpanhmznce oe îwnzmez aox zc|xncexj „M J E %
l. Oacekmznce ¢ x~ezdäxo jMJE ²
Aox l|nex jo am jclao anmnxce j„MJE xcez meznpm|maaäao oz jceh aox
fîhmenxfoxj îacekmznce jnggî|oez xoace ao l|ne à |îpan}o|%
Na otnxzo mnexn e l|ne jn|ohz oe p|îhcho! h|îo jo gmëce hcezneo jmex ao xoex
?„58„ !oz e l|ne nejn|ohz c zm|jng h|îo jo gmëce jnxhcezneo !xcx gc|fo jo
g|mkfoezj Cbmymbn jmex ao xoex ?„58„%
Hcffoez ao l|ne zm|jng oxz x~ezdîznxî 3
A„MJEp m loxcne j„e mfc|ho pc| gcehznceeo|! hozzo jo|enä|o oxz gc|eno
pm| a„M\E h|îo pm| eo p|nfmxo %Na ~„m|m jceh xo ao l|ne |ozm|j jox icehzncex
M\E&MJE! }n xo|cez pm| am xnzo îanfneîo pm| eo M\Emxo %
Jox MJE pca~fî|mxo pm|znhanä|o wcez oexnzo hcflao| aox amheox amnxxîox
pm| a„M\E oexnzo eo anpmxo |oano aox g|mkfoezx j„Cbmymbn jo <00 pl%
h. Zo|fnemnxce
Hc||oxpcej m a„m||éz jo am |îpanhmznce ac|x}o jot gc|hdox jo |îpanhmznce xo
|oehcez|oez c ac|x}„eo gc|hdo |oehcez|o e xnkema jo zo|fnemnxce jo am
|îpanhmznce%
j. Gnjîanzî jo am |îpanhmznce
Am hcexo|wmznce j fmzî|noa kîeîzn}o j„oexoflao ece xoaofoez
fîhmenxfo p|îhnx jo hcpno j„MJE à hdm}o kîeî|mznce hoaaamn|o fmnx
îkmaofoez jox x~xzäfox jo |îpm|mznce jox aîxncex mhhnjoezoaaox }n jcnwoez
mkn| m hc|x jo am |îpanhmznce !hozzo |îpm|znznce oxz jo oe z|äx k|mejo pm|zno
à a„MJEp }n oz oe pamho a„oey~fo otcehaîmxn}o oe hmx j„o||o|x j„mz|o
x~xzäfox jo |îpm|mznce jox fîxmppm|nofoez fnxfmzhd |opmn| c F\ c P\?