ALT AND SALT-MANUFACTUR:E
logical information which would makethese worlrs :interesting to the scientist.As late as
we find a statelllentthat the salt could be separated from thesea water by means of a '(bladder madeof wax.
This "bladder made of wax" wasprobably never tried experimentally be-cause it mas obviously cited after Aris-totle, who, according to modern schol-ar~,~epended upon an error made by acopyist, who substituted
(wax)for the K$Q~ELLYOSclay) in Democritus'writings
Similar fanciful methods are still re-corded in various seventeenth centuryjournals. We shall pass, however, fromalchemy to chemistry and start with thefathers of all culture-the Chinese.The oldest Chinese treatise on pharma-cology and pharmacognosy is the Peng-Tzao-Kan-Mu, which may be translatedas the man-plant-classification. In thistreatise, which dates back, according tosome authorities, to about 2700
we find in Volume
on "Stones,"part of Book
devoted to the descrip-tion of "20 kinds of salt," and "27additional kinds.
The kind of descrip-tions and the style, especially of thechapter headings, are analogous to thoseof Dioscovides and Plin~.~n this bookwe find references to solar as well as topit or rock salt (Fig.
manufacture.One fact is, however, apparent.
the oldest known
The subject of the Emperor Huang,
pp. 98, 99,
the earliest (though slightly
hundredand twenty historical
named Shu-Sha or Sou-cha, invented theart of extracting the salt from sea water.This must have been prior to 2200
C., for we find that the Emperor
of the Hia dynasty, which flourishedduring that era, levied the first salt-taxin the province of Tsing Tau.Other processes
salt making inChina are apparently more modern, forhi-ping, prefect of the province ofSe-tchuan (300
C.), "well versed inthe arts of' stones," discovered in theearth the salt deposits. Exploited bymeans of salt-pits they enriched the in-habitants who previously got their saltfrom Chan-Si in exchange for their tea.5The latter procedure is analogous tothat employed in the Staffordshire brine-pits.
Pierre Roang, "Expos6