Pollution Prevention and Abatement
Fruit and Vegetable Processing
January 31, 1996Page 477
Return toxic materials packaging to thesupplier for reuse or incinerate/destroy in anenvironmentally acceptable manner.
Minimize storage time of off-specificationproducts through regular reprocessing. Stack gas scrubbing, carbon adsorption, (fortoxic organics), and baghouses (for particulatematter removal) are applicable and effectivetechnologies for minimizing the release ofsignificant pollutants to air. In some cases,biological filters are also used to reduceemissions of organics. Combustion is used forthe destruction of toxic organics.
Find productive uses for off-specificationproducts to avoid disposal problems.
Minimize raw material and productinventory to avoid degradation and wastage.
Use high pressure hoses for equipmentcleaning to reduce wastewater.
Provide storm water drainage and avoidits contamination from process areas.
Label and store toxic and hazardousmaterials in secure bunded areas. Spillageshould be collected and re-used. Reverse osmosis or ultra-filtration is used torecover and concentrate active ingredients.Effluent treatment normally includesneutralization, flocculation, flotation,coagulation, filtration, settling, ion exchange,carbon adsorption, detoxification of activeingredients by oxidation (using ozone wet airoxidation ultraviolet systems, or peroxidesolutions), and biological treatment (usingtrickling filters, anaerobic, activated sludge, androtating biological contactors). Exhaustedcarbon from adsorption processes may be sentfor regeneration or combustion. In some cases,air or steam stripping is performed to removeorganics. Toxic metals are precipitated andfiltered out.Where appropriate, a pharmaceuticalmanufacturing plant should prepare a hazardassessment and operability study and alsoprepare and implement an Emergency Planwhich takes into account neighboring land usesand the potential consequences of anemergency. Measures to avoid the release ofharmful substances should be incorporated inthe design operation, maintenance, andmanagement of the plant.
Pollution Reduction Targets
Implementation of cleaner production processesand pollution prevention measures can provideboth economic and environmental benefits.
Specific reduction targets for the differentprocesses have not been determined. In theabsence of specific pollution reduction targets,new plants should always achieve better thanthe industry averages quoted in the section onWaste Characteristics and should approach theeffluent levels. The table in the EmissionsRequirements section presents the maximumeffluent levels after the addition of pollutioncontrol measures
Contaminated solid wastes are generallyincinerated and the flue gases are scrubbed.Combustion devices should be operated attemperatures above 1,000
C with a residencetime of at least one second to achieve acceptabledestruction efficiency (of over 99.99 percent) oftoxics. However, temperatures of around 900
Care acceptable provided at least 99.99 percentdestruction/removal efficiency of toxics isachieved.For controlling air emissions, install vaporrecovery systems. Recycle wastewaters andtreated effluents to the extent feasible.
Emission levels for the design and operation ofeach project must be established through theEnvironmental Assessment (EA) process, basedon country legislation and the