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Heat Ex Changers

Heat Ex Changers

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Published by nagendra03
hai friends this is about heat exchangers
hai friends this is about heat exchangers

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: nagendra03 on Jan 03, 2010
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08/19/2010

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MODULE
 
7
HEAT EXCHANGERS
 
7.1 What are heat exchangers?
Heat exchangers are practical devices used to transfer energy fromone fluid to another. Around the household, we are accustomed toseeing the condensers and evaporators used in air conditioning units.In automobiles we see radiators and oil coolers. In the power industrywe see boilers, condensers, economizers, pre-heaters and numerousother heat exchangers. Within the process industry, we find heatexchangers used extensively for a variety of purposes.Because of the wide variety of uses for heat exchangers, theirconstruction may vary widely. We will consider only the morecommon types here, but the considerations included are common toall types.In industrial drawings it is common to use the abbreviation HX toindicate heat exchangers. We will use this terminology here toshorten the discussions.
7.2 Heat Transfer Considerations
The energy flow between hot and coldstreams, when viewed from one end of theheat exchanger, will appear as shown inFigure to the right. Heat transfer will occurby convection to the outside of the innertube, by conduction across the tube and byconvection to the cooler fluid from theinside tube surface. Since the heat transferoccurs across the smaller tube, it is thisinternal surface which controls the heattransfer process. By convention, it is theouter surface, termed A
o
, of this central tube
t Td
i
d
o
 
 
which is referred to in describing heat exchanger area. Applying theelectrical analogy, an equivalent thermal resistance may be definedfor this tube.
 RhAklhA
oooiii
= +⎛ ⎝  ⎠+
121ln
π 
 If we define the heat exchanger coefficient, U
c
, as:
 RA
co
1
 Substituting the value of R above this yields:
11
Uh AhA
coooioii
= +⎛ ⎝  ⎠+
ln
 Both convective coefficients,
h
o
and
h
i
,
 
can be evaluated fromexperimentally developed convective correlations. Areas and radiiare determined from the geometry of the internal tube. The thermalconductivity,
, corresponds to that for the material of the internaltube. In this fashion each of the terms are generally available fordetermining
c
 
and the term is well defined for most heat exchangers.
7.3 Fouling
Material deposits on the surfaces of the heat exchanger tube may addfurther resistances to heat transfer in addition to those listed above. Suchdeposits are termed fouling and may significantly affect heat exchangerperformance. The heat exchanger coefficient,
c
, determined above may bemodified to include the fouling factor R
.
1 1
U  R
d c
= +
"
 
 
Scaling
is the most common form of fouling and is associated withinverse solubility salts. Examples of such salts are CaCO
3
, CaSO
4
,Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
, CaSiO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, Mg(OH)
2
, MgSiO
3
, Na
2
SO
4
, LiSO
4
,and Li
2
CO
3
. The characteristic which is termed inverse solubilityis that, unlike most inorganic materials, the solubility decreaseswith temperature. The most important of these compounds iscalcium carbonate, CaCO
3
. Calcium carbonate exists in severalforms, but one of the more important is limestone. The materialfrequently crystallizes in a form closely resembling marble, another
 
 
form of calcium carbonate. Such materials are extremely difficultto remove mechanically and may require acid cleaning.
 
Corrosion fouling
is classified as a chemical reaction whichinvolves the heat exchanger tubes. Many metals, copper andaluminum being specific examples, form adherent oxide coatingswhich serve to passivate the surface and prevent further corrosion.Metal oxides are a type of ceramic and typically exhibit quite lowthermal conductivities. Even relative thin coatings of oxides maysignificantly affect heat exchanger performance and should beincluded in evaluating overall heat transfer resistance.
 
Chemical reaction fouling
involves chemical reactions in theprocess stream which results in deposition of material on the heatexchanger tubes. When food products are involved this may betermed scorching but a wide range of organic materials are subjectto similar problems. This is commonly encountered whenchemically sensitive process fluids are heated to temperatures nearthat for chemical decomposition. Because of the no flow conditionat the wall surface and the temperature gradient which exists acrossthis laminar sub–layer, these regions will operate at somewhathigher temperatures than the bulk and are ideally suited to promotefavorable conditions for such reactions.
 
Freezing fouling
is said to occur when a portion of the hot stream iscooled to near the freezing point for one of its components. This ismost notable in refineries where paraffin frequently solidifies frompetroleum products at various stages in the refining process,obstructing both flow and heat transfer.
 
 Biological fouling
is common where untreated water is used as acoolant stream. Problems range from algae or other microbes tobarnacles. During the season where such microbes are said tobloom, colonies several millimeters deep may grow across a tubesurface virtually overnight, impeding circulation near the tube walland retarding heat transport. Viewed under a microscope, many of these organisms appear as loosely intertwined fibers–much like theform of fiberglass insulation Traditionally these organisms havebeen treated which chlorine, but present day concerns on possiblecontamination to open water bodies has severely restricted the useof oxidizers in open discharge systems.
 
Particulate fouling
results from the presence of Brownian sizedparticles in solution. Under certain conditions such materialsdisplay a phenomenon known as thermophoresis in which motionis induced as a result of a temperature gradient.Thermodynamically this is referred to as a cross-coupledphenomenon and may be viewed as being analogous to the Seabeck 

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