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Virtual Server Administration

Virtual Server Administration

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Published by: Teeravee Sirinapasawasdee on Jan 03, 2010
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05/25/2012

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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5Virtual ServerAdministration
Linux Virtual Server (LVS) for Red Hat Enterprise Linux
 
Virtual Server Administration
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Virtual Server AdministrationLinux Virtual Server (LVS) for Red Hat Enterprise LinuxEdition 3
Copyright
©
2009 Red Hat, Inc. This material may only be distributed subject to the terms andconditions set forth in the Open Publication License, V1.0 or later (the latest version of the OPL ispresently available at
http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/ 
).Red Hat and the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo are registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the UnitedStates and other countries.All other trademarks referenced herein are the property of their respective owners.1801 Varsity DriveRaleigh, NC 27606-2072 USAPhone: +1 919 754 3700Phone: 888 733 4281Fax: +1 919 754 3701PO Box 13588 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA Building a Linux Virtual Server (LVS) system offers highly-available and scalable solution forproduction services using specialized routing and load-balancing techniques configured through thePIRANHA. This book discusses the configuration of high-performance systems and services with RedHat Enterprise Linux and LVS for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
 
iii
Introduction v
1. Document Conventions ................................................................................................... vi1.1. Typographic Conventions ..................................................................................... vi1.2. Pull-quote Conventions ........................................................................................ vii1.3. Notes and Warnings ........................................................................................... viii2. Feedback ....................................................................................................................... ix
1. Linux Virtual ServerOverview1
1.1. A Basic LVS Configuration ............................................................................................ 11.1.1. Data Replication and Data Sharing Between Real Servers ................................... 31.2. A Three-Tier LVS Configuration ..................................................................................... 31.3. LVS Scheduling Overview ............................................................................................. 41.3.1. Scheduling Algorithms ....................................................................................... 51.3.2. Server Weight and Scheduling ........................................................................... 61.4. Routing Methods .......................................................................................................... 71.4.1. NAT Routing ..................................................................................................... 71.4.2. Direct Routing ................................................................................................... 81.5. Persistence and Firewall Marks ..................................................................................... 91.5.1. Persistence ....................................................................................................... 91.5.2. Firewall Marks ................................................................................................. 101.6. LVS — A Block Diagram ............................................................................................ 101.6.1. LVS Components ............................................................................................. 11
2. Initial LVS Configuration 13
2.1. Configuring Serviceson the LVS Routers .................................................................... 132.2. Setting a Passwordfor the
.............................................. 142.3. Starting the
Service ......................................................... 142.3.1. Configuring the
Piranha Configuration Tool
Web Server Port ........................... 152.4. Limiting Access To the
Piranha Configuration Tool
.................................................... 152.5. Turning on Packet Forwarding .................................................................................... 162.6. Configuring Services on the Real Servers .................................................................... 16
3. Setting Up LVS 19
3.1. The NAT LVSNetwork ................................................................................................ 193.1.1. Configuring Network Interfaces for LVS with NAT ............................................... 193.1.2. Routingon the Real Servers ............................................................................ 203.1.3. Enabling NAT Routing on the LVS Routers ........................................................ 213.2. LVS via Direct Routing ............................................................................................... 213.2.1. Direct Routing and
arptables_jf
.................................................................. 223.2.2. Direct Routing and
iptables
.......................................................................... 233.3. Putting the Configuration Together ............................................................................... 243.3.1. General LVS Networking Tips ........................................................................... 253.4. Multi-port Services and LVS ........................................................................................ 253.4.1. Assigning Firewall Marks .................................................................................. 263.5. Configuring FTP ......................................................................................................... 273.5.1. How FTP Works .............................................................................................. 273.5.2. How This Affects LVS Routing .......................................................................... 273.5.3. Creating Network Packet Filter Rules ................................................................ 283.6. Saving Network Packet Filter Settings ......................................................................... 29
4. Configuring the LVS Routers with Piranha Configuration Tool31
4.1. Necessary Software ................................................................................................... 314.2. Logging Into the
.............................................................. 31

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