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Short Circuit Calculation

# Short Circuit Calculation

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Short circuit calculation is book you must read
Short circuit calculation is book you must read

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Published by: graduadoesime on Jan 04, 2010
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08/14/2013

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1SDC007101G0202
Technical Application Papers
February 2008
2
MV/LV transformersubstations: theory andexamples of short-circuitcalculation

Index
1 General information on MV/LVtransformer substations1
.Classic typologies ......................................2
1
.2General considerations about MV/LVtransormers ................................................5
1
.3MV protection devices: observations aboutthe limits imposed by the utility companies ...8
1
.4LV protection devices .................................8
2 Calculation of short-circuitcurrents2
.Data necessary or the calculation ...........
2
.2Calculation o the short-circuit current .....2
2
.3Calculation o motor contribution ............5
2
.4Calculation o the peak current value .....5
MV/LV transormer substations:theory and examples o short-circuit calculation

3 Choice of protection andcontrol devices3
.Generalities about the main electricalparameters o the protection and controldevices ...................................................7
3
.2Criteria or the circuit-breaker choice .......9
3
.3Coordination between circuit-breakersand switch-disconnectors .........................2
3
.4Coordination between automatic circuit-breakers-residual current devices (RCDs) ...22
3
.5Example o study o a MV/LV network .....23 Annex A: Calculation o the transormer inrush current ........30 Annex B:Example o calculation o the short-circuitcurrent ...................................................................32BMethod o symmetrical components ............33B2Power method ..............................................38Glossary...............................................................40

2
MV/LV transormer substations: theory and examples o short-circuit calculation
1 General information on MV/LV transformer substations
1
.Classic types
An electrical transormer substation consists o a wholeset o devices (conductors, measuring and control ap-paratus and electric machines) dedicated to transormingthe voltage supplied by the medium voltage distributiongrid (e.g. 5kV or 20kV), into voltage values suitableor supplying low voltage lines with power(400V - 690V).The electrical substations can bedivided into public substations andprivate substations:
public substations:
these belong tothe electricity utility and supply pri-vate users in alternating single-phaseor three-phase current (typical valueso the voltage or the two types o powersupply can be 230V and 400V). In turn, theseare divided into urban or rural type substations,consisting o a single reduced-size power transormer.Urban substations are usually built using bricks, whereasrural ones are oten installed externally directly on theMV pylon.
private substations:
these can oten be considered asterminal type substations, i.e. substations where the MVline ends at the point o installation o the substation itsel.They belong to the user and can supply both civil users(schools, hospitals, etc.) with power and industrial userswith supply rom the public MV grid. These substationsare mostly located in the same rooms o the actory theysupply and basically consist o three distinct rooms:-
delivery room
:

where the switching apparatus o theutility is installed. This room must be o a size to allowany construction o the in-eed/output system whichthe utility has the right to realise even at a later timeto satisy its new requirements. The take-up point isound in the delivery room, which represents the borderand connection between the public grid and the userplant.-
instrument room
:

where the measuring units are lo-cated.Both these rooms must have public road access toallow intervention by authorised personnel whetherthe user is present or not.-
user room
: destined to contain the transormer and theMV and LV switching apparatus which are the concerno the user. This room must normally be adjacent tothe other two rooms.Figure  shows the typical structure o a substation withdivision o the rooms as previously described.It is normally expected that the customer use MV/LVtransormers with:-
delta primary winding
Δ
), because, thanks to thisconnection type, the third harmonics o the magnet-izing currents (distorted due to the non-linearity o themagnetic circuit) and any possible homopolar currentare ree to circulate through the sides o the delta,without owing into the network; thus, the magneticuxes remain sinusoidal and consequently also the eminduced at the secondary.Besides, in case o unbalanced loads at the second-ary winding, the reaction current absorbed by theprimary ows only through the corresponding winding(as shown in the fgure) without aecting the other two;i this should occur, as in the star connection, the cur-rents in those windings would be magnetizing currentsand would cause an asymmetry in the phase voltages.Only when special applications are provided (weldingmachines, actuators, etc.), the connection can be not
o delta type and the choice shall be agreed on withthe utility.
-
secondary winding with grounded star point
(),to make line and phase voltages easily available, butabove all or saety reasons, since, in the event o aault between the MV and LV sides, the voltage at the
Figure 1: Conceptual diagram of the substation

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