incarnate. Logos is the divine reason that permeates all creation, making order out of chaos,creating humans in his own image, who are creatures with a rational soul. But this premisegenerated questions regarding the relationship of Logos to God. Was Logos distinct from Godor was it God? Also, was Logos created by God at some later moment or had it always existedin God, as stated in the prologue to John’s Gospel (John 1:1)?
Such questions found expression in the views of Arius, a 4th Century Alexandrian churchelder who wrote that “there was a time that the Logos was not.” In his attempt to preserve themonotheistic Unity of God against emerging views about the divinity of Jesus, Arius equatedLogos to Sophia (i.e., God
s wisdom), referring to Scripture (Proverbs 8:22), where Sophiaspeaks as a creature made by God at the beginning of his acts. Logos then, as equated toSophia which is a creature of God, receives divinity from God but is not God. This statementargued against the divine identity of Jesus who was worshipped by Christians as God
s son,implying that Christianity was an idolatrous religion.Arius
s claims raised a host of controversies, forcing the early fathers to defend Logos asbeing of the same substance with that of God (i.e., “Homoousios”), call the Arian views a heresyand all that espoused them heretics, and exclude them from the Church. The opposing viewscreated a schism in the Church, aligning bishops against Arianists. Among the Christianapologists of that time were Alexander of Alexandria, Eusebius of Caesaria, and Athanasius, allof whom defended the essence of Jesus as divine, stating that only true divinity can savehumans from death.The ongoing debates raised concerns in the emperor Constantine who had seen thepower of Christianity to unite his vast and diverse empire. But in order for that religion to servehis political purposes, it should first acquire a unified theology spoken through clear and conciseterms, easily learned and expressed by all Christians alike. Therefore, he assembled the