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Valves

Valves

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Published by: Muhamad Firdaus Azizan on Jan 04, 2010
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Engineers typically lavish much attention on pumps
but
little on valves, which are just as important for theproper functioningof apumping
station.
Thediscus-sion of valves and actuators in this chapter
applies
mainly to the control of the pumped fluid. Small
valves
for
auxiliary purposes (e.g., seal water,
fuel,
and
plumbing)
are
only
briefly
mentioned.Most valves in a pumping station are for isolationservice and, as such, are either open or
closed.
Actua-tors are usually manual for valves smaller than 600
mm
(24 in.), and power-driven actuators are usually
used
for valves larger than 900 mm (36 in.). Checkvalves respond to flow direction and open and
close
automatically. Pump control valves serve a dual
func-
tion
as check valves, and the powered actuators areprogrammed to open and
close
slowly enough to con-trol transient pipeline pressures within acceptable lim-
its.
If used at all, control valves are the most important
valves
in a pumping station. Flow-control valves (or
valves
that modulate to control flow or pressure) areused
in
small sizes
for
cooling-water
or
seal-waterpiping. Pressure-control valves are sometimes used indistributionsystems
to
separate regions
of two
differ-
ent pressures. In pumping stations, surge relief orsurge anticipation valvesarcoccasionally usedtorelieve high-pressure surges.Theassociated design considerationsofcavitation,noise, actuator sizing,
and
vibration
are
specific
for
Chapter
5
Valves
CARL
N. ANDERSON
BAYARD
E.
BOSSERMAN
Il
CHARLES
D.
MORRIS
CONTRIBUTORSCasi
Cadrecha
Joseph
E.
LescovichHarvey W.
Taylor
the brand and model of the valve used and, hence, arenotdiscussed
here. Designers
should
be
aware, how-ever,of theproblemsandexplore them thoroughly
with
the manufacturer.Additional information
of
value
can be
found
in
the literature and in the following references: Cook[1], O'Keefe [2], Deutsch
et
al
[3],
AWWA
Mil
[4],
the
ISA
Handbook
of
Control
Valves
[5], Lyons [6],
and
others
[7—11].
Photographs
and
drawings thatdepict the various valves and show how they work are
so
readily obtainable
from
manufacturers that
few are
reproduced
here.
Referencesto aspecificationorstandardaregiveninabbreviated
form
(such as ANSI B 16.34) because suchdesignations
are
sufficient
for
identification.
The
titles
of
references are given in Appendix E together withother standards that may not be referenced but, never-theless,aid in theselectionandspecificationofvalves.Addresses of publishers are given in Appendix F. Thedangers
in
referencing
a
standard without
carefully
reading the entire work are discussed in Section 1-4.
5-1.
Designing
for
Quality
Choosing the right kind, style, and even make of valvein the right situation is vital to the proper functioning
of
the station. A valve proper for one installation may
 
be improper for another. Style (and even model andmaker)
has a
profound
effect
on
satisfactory service.Theproblemofselectioniscomplicatedby thefol-lowing considerations: (1) a valve satisfactory in onelocation may not be satisfactory in another locationeven
if
conditions
are
only slightly
different;
(2)
mak-ers ofseveral stylesofvalvesmaymake some goodones
and
some poor ones;
(3)
models
are
changed
from
timetotimeand avalve, once poor,may now begood; and,
finally,
(4) it is
extremely
difficult
to
writespecifications to comply with the law, allow competi-
tive
bidding, and still obtain a satisfactory valve.Familiarity
with
the
various manufactured products,which is the key to good selection, can be achieved by
Interviewing many manufacturers' representatives
(but
with
critical skepticism),
and
Discussing valves with expert consultants and withusers
— he
operators and the utility managers.Note that many makes or models of valves look alike
but
differ
significantlyin
quality.
A
valve
is
probably
of
high quality if a competitor agrees. The best valves areexpensive, so a misplaced emphasis on low initial costmakes procurement
of
satisfactory valves
difficult
at
best. Valvesare theheartof thehydraulic system;ifthey
fail,
the system
fails.
In the long run, a cheap valve
will
have provedto be themost expensive. Skimpingon
valves
is thewrongway to try tosave money.Good quality
can be
obtained
by
incorporating intothe specifications such items or criteria as listed below.
Materials:
Abrasion-, corrosion-, and
cavitation-resistant materials of construction
 especially
forseats (see Table
5-1).
Table
5-1.
Typical
Valve
Seat
Materials
Type
specification
Life
Remarks
Resilient
seats
BunaN
Good General-purpose elastomer
for
water
and
wastewater. Economical,
suitable for
most water
and
sewage uses.Leather Good Usually impregnated with various waxes
to
improve qualities.Sometimes used
for
water,
not
sewage.
UHMW
3
Very
good
Very
abrasion-
and
chemical-resistant;
not
expensive.
Teflon™
Poor Impervious to
chemical
attack, creeps too much for normal use;expensive.
Viton™
Poor Use only for aggressive liquids or high temperatures,
creeps
somewhat.
Natural
rubber Good Suitable only
for
fresh
water.
Rigid
seatsBronzeASTMB 62, B 584 (34Tremendous variation Most common seat material, least resistantto
erosion
or
corrosion.
alloys), B 16, B 371
among alloysStelliteSAE, J775, AMS 5373, Excellent Expensive; best of all for resistance to both corrosion and
erosion.5375,5378, 5380,
5385,5387,
788
Stainless
steel
Specification
Erosion
b
Corrosion
b
Remarks
44OC
ASTM A276, alloy1 5Most resistanttoerosion, highest
S44004
hardness.420ASTMA276alloy2 5
S42000
17-4
PH
ASTM A564,alloy
3 3S17400410
ASTMA276,alloy
4 4
S41000
405
ASTMA276,alloy
5 4
S40500
316 ASTM A276, alloy6 1Highest resistanceto
corrosion.
S31600
304 ASTM A276, alloy 7 2 Least resistant to erosion.
S30400
a
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.
b
1
signifies
the best resistance.
 
Headloss:
Specify
a price penalty based on
life-
cycle energy costs
for
more headloss than
a
stated
value.
Proof-of-design
tests:
Require certification
of
suc-
cessful
completion
of
proof-of-design testing con-
ductedon a
6-in.
(or
larger) valve
in
accordance with
AWWA
C504, Section 5.5, altered as necessary toapply
to the
valve specified (e.g.,
"disc"
in the
stan-
dard
means
"plug"
in a
specification
for a
plug valve).
Massiveness
of
construction
and
conservatively
designed
bearings,
shafts,
andother moving parts:
Shafts,
especially
in
cushioned-swing check valves,should be very large; compare the various makesand modelsto
specify
ahigh-quality product.
Service
records:
Find a way to
specify
features thateliminate valves with poor records.
Complexity:
Specify
valvesandactuators thataresimple, trouble
free,
and
require minimum mainte-nance or the kind of maintenance within the capa-
bilityof the
workforce.
Resilient seat material that will not
cold
flow under
differential
pressures:
Look
for
well-designedmechanisms to retain seats in place (see Table
5-1);
for
wastewater
and
sludge, seat materials must
be
resistant to oils and solvents.
Responsibility:
Include a clause that involves the
manufacturer
in the
responsibility
for
valve (andvalve actuator system) performance. Warning:
In
some instances, manufacturers have inserted addi-
tional
rubber
shims
or
seals
to the seats
during sometests to meet the C504 testing requirement that thevalve be drop-tight in both directions. Such prac-
tices
should
not be
accepted.
Life-Cycle
Cost
Quality might
be
said
to be an
inverse
function
of
life-
cycle cost, which is a combination of capital, mainte-nance, and energy costs. Headlosses can result inmind-boggling energy costs, as demonstrated inExample
5-1.
Example
5-1Energy
Penalties for Three
Valves
Problem:
Compare cone,
butterfly,
and
globe valves
for
life-cycle costs
of
energy. Assume
(1)
electric power
at
$0.05/kW
h, (2) a flow
velocity
of
3.05
m/s (10
ft/s),
(3)
headlosses based
on
the
K
factors of Table B-7, (4) a wire-to-water power
efficiency
of 75% for the pump, (5)
inter-
est at 8%, (6) a
life
of 20 yr, and (7)
300-mm(12-in.)valves wide open.
Solution:
Calculate the annual cost of electric power, using headloss data
from
Table B-7,Equation 10-7 for the relation between head, power, pump
efficiency,
and flowrate, and Equa-tion 29-4
for the
present worth
of an
annual expenditure. From
the
results,
it is
evident thatheadloss
is an
important cost factor.
Headloss
Energy
cost (in dollars)Valve
m
ft Annual
Present
worth
Cone 0.02 0.06
24 235
Butterfly
0.15
0.5 211
2,070
Globe
2.3 7.5
3,010
29,600
Location
Quality
is a continuing concern and, hence, also a
function
of maintenance. Maintenance costs are elu-sive, but, whatever they are, they
can be
reduced
by
placing valves and actuators in locations that are eas-
ily
accessible for servicing. Make it convenient to iso-late and drain separate parts of the system, and writemaintenance and exercising programs into the O&Mmanual. Note that, because
of
savings
in
parts
and
operation and maintenance labor, it may be more cost
effective
to
install
an
expensive valve (such
as a
plugor avalveofcorrosion-resistant construction) thatworks when needed than to install a cheap valve (such
as
a gate or a valve of lesser quality) that may not
work
until repaired.High quality is achieved as much by good location
and
good piping layout as by specifying high-quality

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