Chemistry plays an important role in our daily lives. we severely use chemicals now and thenfor our benefit. her are some important applications of chemistry in different fields-
CHEMISTRY IN MEDICINES-
At first ayurvedic and unani methods were used for the treatment of deseases,but they took along time to cure the disease. As a result allopathy replaced them as it provides relief fromthe disease in a time relatively small as compared to other methods.let us first know what a medicine is. The chemical substances of natural or synthetic originwhich provide relief from pain or which are used for curing diseases are called medicines andthis process is known as chemotherapy.to understand the topic we must be aware of the difference between term drug and medicine.as such there is no difference between drug and medicine from chemical point of view butour society makes a clearcut distinction between the two as follows- A medicine is achemical substance which cures diseases,is safe to use,has negligible toxicity and does notcause addiction. in contrast, a drug is a chemical substance which also cures the disease but ishabit forming,causes addiction and has serious side effects.TYPES OF DRUGS-
Antacids-the substances which neuitralise the excess acid and raise the pH to anappropriate level in stomach are called antacids. most commonly used antacids areweak bases such as sodium bicarbonate,magnesium trisilicate etc.
Antihistamines- histamine is a potent vasodilator. It is responsible for allergy such asskin rashes,inflammation of tissues and itching of hives etc. the drug which interfereswith the natural actin of histamine by competing with histamine for binding site of receptor where histamine exers its effect arw called antihistamines. example of antihistamine drugs are brompheniramine and terfenadine.
Neurologically active drugs-(a)-Tranquilisers-drugs which are used for the treatment of stress,fatigue,mild andsevere mental diseases are called tranquilisers.they relieve anxiety, stress ,irritability by inducing a sense of well being. examples are equanil,veronal, seconal etc.(b)-Analgesics- drugs which reduce or abolish pain without impairmentconsciousness, mental confusion,incoordination or paralysis or some other disturbance or disorder of the nervous system are called analgesics.these are further classified into two components1.non narcotic or non addictive drugs which do not form habit. examples are aspirinand paracitemol2.narcotic or addictive drugs which form habit.examples codcine and morphine.3