contraction of the myocardium, results in ejection of blood from theventricles. Relaxation of the myocardium, or
allows for filling of theventricles.
(CO) is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1minute. It is calculated by multiplying the amount of blood ejected from theventricle with each heartbeat, the stroke volume (SV), by the heart rate (HR) per minute: CO = SV
Factors affecting SV are preload, afterload, and contractility.
is thevolume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole, and
representsthe peripheral resistance against which the left ventricle must pump.
refers to the heart’s ability to alter the CO in response to anincrease in demand (e.g., exercise, hypovolemia).
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases HR, speed of conductionthrough the AV node, and force of atrial and ventricular contractions, whereasstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system decreases HR.
Baroreceptors, located in the aortic arch and carotid sinus, respond to stretch or pressure within the arterial system. Stimulation of these receptors results intemporary inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system and an increase in parasympathetic influence.
Chemoreceptors, located in the aortic arch and carotid body, can initiate changesin HR and arterial pressure in response to decreased arterial O
pressure, increasedarterial CO
pressure, and decreased plasma pH.
Arterial blood pressure
(BP) measures the pressure exerted by blood against thewalls of the arterial system.
systolic blood pressure
(SBP) is the peak pressure exerted against thearteries when the heart contracts. The
diastolic blood pressure
(DBP) is theresidual pressure of the arterial system during ventricular relaxation (or filling). Normal blood pressure is systolic BP less than 120 mm Hg and diastolic BP lessthan 80 mm Hg.
The two main factors influencing BP are cardiac output (CO) and systemicvascular resistance (SVR), which is the force opposing the movement of blood.
BP can be measured by invasive (catheter inserted in an artery) and noninvasivetechniques (using a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope).