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7299199 Pressure Vessel Design1

7299199 Pressure Vessel Design1

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Published by: darwin_jon on Jan 05, 2010
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10/30/2011

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Design of Pressure Vessels
This module should take the user through pressure vessel designapplication (PVDA). The necessary background is built by the modules “Mechanical Design Fundamentals” and
.
 
Shape
Process vessels for use in chemical process industry are conceived,designed and fabricated in a fairly small number of shapes. These aregenerally
Shapes of Revolution
. The important basic shapes are:cylinder, sphere (or hemi-sphere), ellipsoid (or hemi-ellipsoid), torus, cone(or frustum of a cone) and a flat plate. Using these shapes, several composite pressure vessel shapes can be constituted.PVDA visualizes a composite vessel shape as a stack of layers, eachlayer utilizing one of the basic shapes.
Size
The spatial dimensions of each of these shapes can be defined in termsof a few
size primitives
. For example, a sphere is completely defined byits diameter. A cylinder is completely defined by its diameter and length etc.The diameter can be given either as “inner diameteror “outer diameter”. One of them is entered by the user. The other one is calculatedafter the vessel wall thickness (t) is arrived at suitably. The relationship between the ID and OD is as follows.OD = ID – 2t.The values for essential size parameters for each of the shapes comprisingthe composite vessel shape need to be provided by the user. Connectivity of shapes in adjacent layers allows internal fixation of sizes of some shapes.
Wall Thickness
Design codes provide formulae for calculating the minimum wallthickness for the standard shapes. The application of the formula for anyspecific shape requires the user to provide
design temperature, designpressure
, material of construction and its
allowable stress
at the design
 
temperature, fabrication and inspection procedure and
weld qualityfactor
or 
weld joint
 
efficiency
. The thickness calculated usingapplicable code formula is the regulation thickness. This much thicknessmust be available uniformly everywhere in the vessel body.The regulation thickness needs to be corrected for the
corrosionallowance
and
mill tolerance
. The next available
commercial platethickness
is then the
recommended wall thickness
.Available wall thickness is the thickness left after deducting the milltolerance and corrosion allowance from the recommended wall thickness.This is obviously more than or at least equal to the regulation thickness. Themaximum pressure that the shape can withstand with this available thicknesswhile still complying with the regulation thickness formula is calculated.This is the
Maximum Working Pressure
(MWP) allowed by therecommended wall thickness.After fabrication and assembly, the vessel is tested for its pressureintegrity. The test if often carried out at a pressure higher than the design pressure as well as the maximum working pressure. It is rated so as todevelop in the weakest vessel portion stresses equivalent to the yield stressof the material of construction. The hydrotest pressure is obtained bymultiplying the MWP by a factor greater than 1. Logically it is 1-5, thesafety factor used in getting allowable stress from material’s yield stress.
Flange Design Calculations
Adjacent vessel shapes (as in adjacent layers of a composite shape)need to be connected. These could be welded on flange connected. PVDAallows the user to specify suitable connection choice. Flanged connection, if selected need to be properly designed.Various types of flanges and flange surfaces are possible. Choicedepends on the service and vessel dimensions. Similarly, a wide choice isavailable for gasket material. The choice is governed by the service andflange type.Suitable design formulae lead to calculation of Gasket CircleDiameter, Gasket Width, Bolt Circle Diameter, number of Bolts, Diameter of each Bolt, flange outer diameter and flange thickness. PVDA supportsthese calculation steps for a given choice of flange type, flange surface,gasket material, gasket thickness and bolt material.
 
 
Nozzle Calculations
The openings required for operational and maintenance reasons onvarious shapes of the vessel are in the form of pipes welded on to the vesselafter cutting an appropriately sized opening.The
schedule
of the pipe of given
nominal bore
(NB) is arrived asusing the pressure thickness calculation formula for cylinder.The openings require to be tested for the need of reinforcing pad.Reinforcing pad increases the vessel wall thickness around the opening if necessary by welding a collar around it. The thickness of the collar isdesigned using area compensation method. The formulae are specific todifferent shapes on which openings are cut. PVDA supports thesecalculations.The nozzles could be of 
different types.
PVDA supports the choiceand calculations for specific user-made choice.
Thermal Insulation
A process vessel operating at super-ambient or sub-ambienttemperature needs to be insulated to minimize heat egress or ingressrespectively. Insulation also is needed as a safety measure so that the skintemperature (exposed surface temperature) of the vessel parts is not veryhigh. The insulation thickness can be calculated on one or more of the threecriteria, namely, based on maximum allowable skin temperature, maximumtolerable rate of heat egress/ ingress or economic criteria (considering thecapital investment vis-a-vis cost of heat energy lost). PVDA supports thethree design criteria.Choice of insulating material is dependent on the services conditionsas well as economics. PVDA supports choice of insulation from among a listavailable in the data base as well as a user-defined insulation.

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