Structural deSign criteria2
2-Structural deSign criteria
his chapter discusses explosive threat parameters andmeasures needed to protect shelters rom blast eects.Structural systems and building envelope elements ornew and existing shelters are analyzed; shelters and FEMA modelbuilding types are discussed; and protective design measures orthe dened building types are provided, as are design guidanceand retrot issues. The purpose o this chapter is to oer compre-hensive inormation on how to improve the resistance o shelters when exposed to blast events.
2.2 explOSiVe threat parameterS
A detonation involves supersonic combustion o an explosive ma-terial and the ormation o a shock wave. The three parametersthat primarily determine the characteristics and intensity o blast loading are the weight o explosives, the type o the explosives,and the distance rom the point o detonation to the protectedbuilding. These three parameters will primarily determine thecharacteristics and intensity o the blast loading. The distance o the protected building rom the point o explosive detonationis commonly reerred to as the stand-o distance. The criticallocations or detonation are taken to be at the closest point that a vehicle can approach, assuming that all security measures arein place. Typically, this would be a vehicle parked along the curbdirectly outside the acility, or at the vehicle access control gate where inspection takes place. Similarly, a critical location may bethe closest point that a hand carried device can be deposited.There is also no way to eectively know the size o the explosivethreat. Dierent types o explosive materials are classied as HighEnergy and Low Energy and these dierent classications greatly infuence the damage potential o the detonation. High Energy explosives, which eciently convert the material’s chemical