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FEMA 453 CH 2

FEMA 453 CH 2

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Published by PDHLibrary
PDHLibrary.com - you can take this course on our website by answering 20-40 questions. this course is available for any engineer looking to meet the pdh hours requirement. Engineering PDH - PDHLibrary.com. Come visit www.pdhlibrary.com
PDHLibrary.com - you can take this course on our website by answering 20-40 questions. this course is available for any engineer looking to meet the pdh hours requirement. Engineering PDH - PDHLibrary.com. Come visit www.pdhlibrary.com

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Published by: PDHLibrary on Jan 05, 2010
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Structural deSign criteria2
2-Structural deSign criteria
2.1 OVerVieW
his chapter discusses explosive threat parameters andmeasures needed to protect shelters rom blast eects.Structural systems and building envelope elements ornew and existing shelters are analyzed; shelters and FEMA modelbuilding types are discussed; and protective design measures orthe dened building types are provided, as are design guidanceand retrot issues. The purpose o this chapter is to oer compre-hensive inormation on how to improve the resistance o shelters when exposed to blast events.
2.2 explOSiVe threat parameterS
 A detonation involves supersonic combustion o an explosive ma-terial and the ormation o a shock wave. The three parametersthat primarily determine the characteristics and intensity o blast loading are the weight o explosives, the type o the explosives,and the distance rom the point o detonation to the protectedbuilding. These three parameters will primarily determine thecharacteristics and intensity o the blast loading. The distance o the protected building rom the point o explosive detonationis commonly reerred to as the stand-o distance. The criticallocations or detonation are taken to be at the closest point that a vehicle can approach, assuming that all security measures arein place. Typically, this would be a vehicle parked along the curbdirectly outside the acility, or at the vehicle access control gate where inspection takes place. Similarly, a critical location may bethe closest point that a hand carried device can be deposited.There is also no way to eectively know the size o the explosivethreat. Dierent types o explosive materials are classied as HighEnergy and Low Energy and these dierent classications greatly infuence the damage potential o the detonation. High Energy explosives, which eciently convert the material’s chemical
2-2Structural deSign criteria
energy into blast pressure, represent less than 1 percent o all ex-plosive detonations reported by the FBI Bomb Data Center. The vast majority o incidents involve Low Energy devices in which asignicant portion o the explosive material is consumed by de-lagration, which is a process o subsonic combustion that usually propagates through thermal conductivity and is typically less de-structive than a detonation. In these cases, a large portion o thematerial’s chemical energy is dissipated as thermal energy, whichmay cause res or thermal radiation damage.For a specic type and weight o explosive material, the inten-sity o blast loading will depend on the distance and orientationo the blast waves relative to the protected space. A shock waveis characterized by a nearly instantaneous rise in pressure that decays exponentially within a matter o milliseconds, which is ol-lowed by a longer term but lower intensity negative phase. Theinitial magnitude o pressure is termed the peak pressure and thearea under a graph o pressure plotted as a unction o time, alsoknown as the airblast pressure time history, is termed the impulse(see Figure 2-1). Thereore, the impulse associated with the shock wave considers both the pressure intensity and the pulse duration. As the ront o the shock-wave propagates away rom the sourceo the detonation at supersonic speed, it expands into increas-ingly larger volumes o air; the peak incident pressure at the shockront decreases and the duration o the pressure pulse increases.The magnitude o the peak pressures and impulses are reduced with distance rom the source and the resulting patterns o blast loads appear to be concentric rings o diminishing intensity. Thiseect is analogous to the circular ripples that are created whenan object is dropped in a pool o water. The shock ront rst im-pinges on the leading suraces o a building located within its pathand is refected and diracted, creating ocus and shadow zoneson the building envelope. These patterns o blast load intensity are complicated as the waves engul the entire building. The pres-sures that load the roo, sides, and rear o the building are termedincident pressures, while the pressures that load the buildingenvelope directly opposite the explosion are termed refectedpressures. Both the intensity o peak pressure and the impulse
2-Structural deSign criteriaF 2-abs pss ms
aect the hazard potential o the blast loading. A detailed analysisis required to determine the magnitude o pressure and impulsethat may load each surace relative to the origin o the detonation.The thresholds o dierent types o injuries associated withdamage to wall ragments and/or glazing are depicted in Figure2-2. This range to eects chart shows a generic interaction betweenthe weight o the explosive threat and its distance to an occupiedbuilding. These generic charts, or conventional construction,provide inormation to law enorcement and public saety ocialsthat allow them to establish sae evacuation distances should an ex-plosive device be suspected or detected. However, these distancesare so site-specic that the generic charts provide little more thangeneral guidance in the absence o more reliable site-specic in-ormation. Based on the inormation provided in the chart, the

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