The picture on the cover is a simple graphic illustration depicting the classical algebraic structureswith single binary operations and their Smarandache analogues. The pictures on the left, composed of concentric circles, depicts the traditional conception of algebraic structures, and the pictures of theright, with their liberal intersections, describe Smarandache algebraic structures. In fact,Smarandache Algebra, like its predecessor, Fuzzy Algebra, arose from the need to define structureswhich were more compatible with the real world where the grey areas mattered. Lofti A Zadeh, the father of fuzzy sets, remarked that: "So, this whole thing started because of my perception at that time,that the world of classical mathematics – was a little too much of a black and white world, that the principle of the 'excluded middle' meant that every proposition must be either true or false. There wasno allowance for the fact that classes do not have sharply defined boundaries." So, here is this book,which is an amalgamation of alternatives.
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2003 by American Research Press and W. B. Vasantha KandasamyRehoboth, Box 141 NM 87322, USAMany books can be downloaded from:http://www.gallup.unm.edu/~smarandache/eBooks-otherformats.htm
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