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Title 17 Copyrights

Title 17 Copyrights

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Copyright Laws.
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Published by: James Allen Isaacs Jr. on Jan 06, 2010
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Page 1
TITLE 17—COPYRIGHTS
This title was enacted by act July 30, 1947, ch. 391, 61 Stat. 652, and was revised in its entirety byPub. L. 94–553, title I, §101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2541
Chap. Sec.
1. Subject Matter and Scope of Copy-right....................................................1012. Copyright Ownership and Transfer 2013. Duration of Copyright.......................3014. Copyright Notice, Deposit, andRegistration......................................4015. Copyright Infringement and Rem-edies....................................................5016. Manufacturing Requirements andImportation.......................................6017. Copyright Office..................................7018. Proceedings by Copyright RoyaltyJudges................................................8019. Protection of Semiconductor ChipProducts.............................................90110. Digital Audio Recording Devicesand Media..........................................100111. Sound Recordings and Music Vid-eos........................................................110112. Copyright Protection and Manage-ment Systems....................................120113. Protection of Original Designs........1301
A
MENDMENTS
 2004—Pub. L. 108–419, §3(b), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat.2361, substituted ‘‘Proceedings by Copyright RoyaltyJudges’’ for ‘‘Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels’’ initem relating to chapter 8.1998—Pub. L. 105–304, title I, §103(b), title V, §503(a),Oct. 28, 1998, 112 Stat. 2876, 2916, added items relating tochapters 12 and 13.1997—Pub. L. 105–80, §12(a)(1), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat.1534, substituted ‘‘Requirements’’ for ‘‘Requirement’’ initem relating to chapter 6, ‘‘Arbitration Royalty Pan-els’’ for ‘‘Royalty Tribunal’’ in item relating to chapter8, and ‘‘Semiconductor Chip Products’’ for ‘‘semi-conductor chip products’’ in item relating to chapter 9,and added item relating to chapter 10.1994—Pub. L. 103–465, title V, §512(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108Stat. 4974, added item relating to chapter 11.1984—Pub. L. 98–620, title III, §303, Nov. 8, 1984, 98Stat. 3356, added item relating to chapter 9.T
ABLE
IThis Table lists the sections of former Title 17, Copy-rights, and indicates the sections of Title 17, as en-acted in 1947, which covered similar and related sub-ject matter.
Title17 FormerSectionsTitle17 1947RevisionSections
1..............................................12..............................................23..............................................34..............................................45..............................................56..............................................77..............................................88..............................................99..............................................1010............................................1111............................................12
T
ABLE
I—C
ONTINUED
Title17 FormerSectionsTitle17 1947RevisionSections
12............................................1313............................................1414............................................1515............................................1616............................................1717............................................1818............................................1919............................................2020............................................2121............................................2222............................................2323............................................2424............................................Rep.25............................................10126............................................10227............................................10328............................................10429............................................10530............................................10631............................................10732............................................10833............................................10934............................................11035............................................11136............................................11237............................................11338............................................11439............................................11540............................................11641............................................2742............................................2843............................................2944............................................3045............................................3146............................................3247............................................20148............................................20249............................................20350............................................20451............................................20552............................................20653............................................20754............................................20855............................................20956............................................21057............................................21158............................................21259............................................21360............................................21461............................................21562............................................2663............................................664............................................665............................................25
T
ABLE
IIThis Table lists the sections of former Title 17, Copy-rights, and indicates the sections of Title 17, as re-vised in 1976, which cover similar and related subjectmatter.
Title 17 1947RevisionSectionsTitle 17 NewSections
1..............................................106, 1162..............................................3013..............................................102, 1034..............................................1025..............................................1026..............................................1027..............................................1038..............................................104, 105, 3039..............................................10410............................................40111............................................41012............................................408
 
Page 2TITLE 17—COPYRIGHTS
T
ABLE
II—C
ONTINUED
Title 17 1947RevisionSectionsTitle 17 NewSections
13............................................407, 41114............................................40715............................................40716............................................60117............................................40718............................................407, 50619............................................40120............................................401, 40221............................................40522............................................60123............................................60124............................................203, 301 et seq.25............................................301 et seq.26............................................10127............................................109, 20228............................................201, 20429............................................20430............................................20531............................................20532............................................201101...........................................412, 501–504102...........................................Rep. See T. 28 §1338103...........................................Rep. See F.R. Civ. Proc.104...........................................110, 506105...........................................506106...........................................602107...........................................602108...........................................603109...........................................603110...........................................Rep. See T. 28 §1338111...........................................Rep. See T. 28 §1400112...........................................502113...........................................502114...........................................502115...........................................507116...........................................505201...........................................701(a)202...........................................701(a)203...........................................708(c)204...........................................Rep.205...........................................701(c)206...........................................701(b)207...........................................702208...........................................705209...........................................407, 410210...........................................707211...........................................707212...........................................705213...........................................704214...........................................704215...........................................708(a), (b)216...........................................703
P
RIOR
P
ROVISIONS
 Title 17, as enacted by act July 30, 1947, ch. 391, 61Stat. 652, consisting of sections 1 to 32, 101 to 116, and201 to 216, as amended through 1976, and section 203, asamended by Pub. L. 95–94, title IV, §406(a), Aug. 5, 1977,91 Stat. 682, terminated Jan. 1, 1978.E
FFECTIVE
D
ATE
 Section 102 of Pub. L. 94–553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat.2598, provided that: ‘‘This Act [enacting this title andsection 170 of Title 2, The Congress, amending section131 of Title 2, section 290e of Title 15, Commerce andTrade, section 2318 of Title 18, Crimes and CriminalProcedure, section 543 of Title 26, Internal RevenueCode, section 1498 of Title 28, Judiciary and JudicialProcedure, sections 3203 and 3206 of Title 39, PostalService, and sections 505 and 2117 of Title 44, PublicPrinting and Documents, and enacting provisions setout as notes below and under sections 104, 115, 304, 401,407, 410, and 501 of this title] becomes effective on Janu-ary 1, 1978, except as otherwise expressly provided bythis Act, including provisions of the first section of thisAct. The provisions of sections 118, 304(b), and chapter8 of title 17, as amended by the first section of this Act,take effect upon enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1976].’’S
EPARABILITY
 Section 115 of Pub. L. 94–553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat.2602, provided that: ‘‘If any provision of title 17 [thistitle], as amended by the first section of this Act, is de-clared unconstitutional, the validity of the remainderof this title is not affected.’’A
UTHORIZATION OF
A
PPROPRIATIONS
 Section 114 of Pub. L. 94–553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat.2602, provided that: ‘‘There are hereby authorized to beappropriated such funds as may be necessary to carryout the purposes of this Act [this title].’’L
OST AND
E
XPIRED
C
OPYRIGHTS
; R
ECORDING
R
IGHTS
 Section 103 of Pub. L. 94–553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat.2599, provided that: ‘‘This Act [enacting this title] doesnot provide copyright protection for any work thatgoes into the public domain before January 1, 1978. Theexclusive rights, as provided by section 106 of title 17 asamended by the first section of this Act, to reproducea work in phonorecords and to distribute phonorecordsof the work, do not extend to any nondramatic musicalwork copyrighted before July 1, 1909.’’
CHAPTER 1—SUBJECT MATTER AND SCOPEOF COPYRIGHT
Sec.
101. Definitions.102. Subject matter of copyright: In general.103. Subject matter of copyright: Compilationsand derivative works.104. Subject matter of copyright: National origin.104A. Copyright in restored works.105. Subject matter of copyright: United StatesGovernment works.106. Exclusive rights in copyrighted works.106A. Rights of certain authors to attribution andintegrity.107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use.108. Limitations on exclusive rights: Reproduc-tion by libraries and archives.109. Limitations on exclusive rights: Effect of transfer of particular copy or phonorecord.110. Limitations on exclusive rights: Exemptionof certain performances and displays.111. Limitations on exclusive rights: Secondarytransmissions.112. Limitations on exclusive rights: Ephemeralrecordings.113. Scope of exclusive rights in pictorial, graphic,and sculptural works.114. Scope of exclusive rights in sound recordings.115. Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic mu-sical works: Compulsory license for makingand distributing phonorecords.116. Negotiated licenses for public performancesby means of coin-operated phonorecordplayers.[116A. Renumbered.]117. Limitations on exclusive rights: Computerprograms.118. Scope of exclusive rights: Use of certainworks in connection with noncommercialbroadcasting.119. Limitations on exclusive rights: Secondarytransmissions of superstations and networkstations for private home viewing.120. Scope of exclusive rights in architecturalworks.121. Limitations on exclusive rights: Reproduc-tion for blind or other people with disabil-ities.122. Limitations on exclusive rights: Secondarytransmissions by satellite carriers withinlocal markets.A
MENDMENTS
 2002—Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title III, §13210(2)(B),(3)(B), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1909, substituted ‘‘Repro-duction’’ for ‘‘reproduction’’ in item 121 and ‘‘Limita-tions on exclusive rights: Secondary transmissions bysatellite carriers within local markets’’ for ‘‘Limita-tions on exclusive rights; secondary transmissions bysatellite carriers within local market’’ in item 122.1999—Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(9) [title I,§1002(c)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–527, addeditem 122.1997—Pub. L. 105–80, §12(a)(2), Nov. 13, 1997, 111 Stat.1534, substituted ‘‘Limitations on exclusive rights:
 
Page 3TITLE 17COPYRIGHTS
§101
Computer programs’’ for ‘‘Scope of exclusive rights:Use in conjunction with computers and similar infor-mation systems’’ in item 117.1996—Pub. L. 104–197, title III, §316(b), Sept. 16, 1996,110 Stat. 2417, added item 121.1994—Pub. L. 103–465, title V, §514(c), Dec. 8, 1994, 108Stat. 4981, substituted ‘‘Copyright in restored works’’for ‘‘Copyright in certain motion pictures’’ in item104A.1993—Pub. L. 103–198, §3(a), (b)(2), Dec. 17, 1993, 107Stat. 2309, renumbered item 116A as 116 and struck outformer item 116 ‘‘Scope of exclusive rights in nondra-matic musical works: Compulsory licenses for publicperformances by means of coin-operated phonorecordplayers.’’Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §334(b), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat.2115, added item 104A.1990—Pub. L. 101–650, title VI, §603(b), title VII,§704(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5130, 5134, added items106A and 120.1988—Pub. L. 100–667, title II, §202(6), Nov. 16, 1988, 102Stat. 3958, added item 119.Pub. L. 100–568, §4(b)(2), Oct. 31, 1988, 102 Stat. 2857,substituted ‘‘Compulsory licenses for public perform-ances’’ for ‘‘Public performances’’ in item 116 and addeditem 116A.
§101. Definitions
Except as otherwise provided in this title, asused in this title, the following terms and theirvariant forms mean the following:An ‘‘anonymous work’’ is a work on the cop-ies or phonorecords of which no natural personis identified as author.An ‘‘architectural work’’ is the design of abuilding as embodied in any tangible mediumof expression, including a building, architec-tural plans, or drawings. The work includesthe overall form as well as the arrangementand composition of spaces and elements in thedesign, but does not include individual stand-ard features.‘‘Audiovisual works’’ are works that consistof a series of related images which are intrin-sically intended to be shown by the use of ma-chines, or devices such as projectors, viewers,or electronic equipment, together with accom-panying sounds, if any, regardless of the na-ture of the material objects, such as films ortapes, in which the works are embodied.The ‘‘Berne Convention’’ is the Conventionfor the Protection of Literary and ArtisticWorks, signed at Berne, Switzerland, on Sep-tember 9, 1886, and all acts, protocols, and re-visions thereto.The ‘‘best edition’’ of a work is the edition,published in the United States at any time be-fore the date of deposit, that the Library of Congress determines to be most suitable forits purposes.A person’s ‘‘children’’ are that person’s im-mediate offspring, whether legitimate or not,and any children legally adopted by that per-son.A ‘‘collective work’’ is a work, such as a pe-riodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedia, inwhich a number of contributions, constitutingseparate and independent works in them-selves, are assembled into a collective whole.A ‘‘compilation’’ is a work formed by thecollection and assembling of preexisting mate-rials or of data that are selected, coordinated,or arranged in such a way that the resultingwork as a whole constitutes an original workof authorship. The term ‘‘compilation’’ in-cludes collective works.A ‘‘computer program’’ is a set of state-ments or instructions to be used directly or in-directly in a computer in order to bring abouta certain result.‘‘Copies’’ are material objects, other thanphonorecords, in which a work is fixed by anymethod now known or later developed, andfrom which the work can be perceived, repro-duced, or otherwise communicated, either di-rectly or with the aid of a machine or device.The term ‘‘copies’’ includes the material ob-ject, other than a phonorecord, in which thework is first fixed.A ‘‘Copyright Royalty Judge’’ is a CopyrightRoyalty Judge appointed under section 802 of this title, and includes any individual servingas an interim Copyright Royalty Judge undersuch section.‘‘Copyright owner’’, with respect to any oneof the exclusive rights comprised in a copy-right, refers to the owner of that particularright.A work is ‘‘created’’ when it is fixed in acopy or phonorecord for the first time; wherea work is prepared over a period of time, theportion of it that has been fixed at any par-ticular time constitutes the work as of thattime, and where the work has been prepared indifferent versions, each version constitutes aseparate work.A ‘‘derivative work’’ is a work based uponone or more preexisting works, such as atranslation, musical arrangement, dramatiza-tion, fictionalization, motion picture version,sound recording, art reproduction, abridg-ment, condensation, or any other form inwhich a work may be recast, transformed, oradapted. A work consisting of editorial revi-sions, annotations, elaborations, or othermodifications which, as a whole, represent anoriginal work of authorship, is a ‘‘derivativework’’.A ‘‘device’’, ‘‘machine’’, or ‘‘process’’ is onenow known or later developed.A ‘‘digital transmission’’ is a transmissionin whole or in part in a digital or other non-analog format.To ‘‘display’’ a work means to show a copyof it, either directly or by means of a film,slide, television image, or any other device orprocess or, in the case of a motion picture orother audiovisual work, to show individual im-ages nonsequentially.An ‘‘establishment’’ is a store, shop, or anysimilar place of business open to the generalpublic for the primary purpose of selling goodsor services in which the majority of the grosssquare feet of space that is nonresidential isused for that purpose, and in which nondra-matic musical works are performed publicly.A ‘‘food service or drinking establishment’’is a restaurant, inn, bar, tavern, or any othersimilar place of business in which the publicor patrons assemble for the primary purpose of being served food or drink, in which the ma-jority of the gross square feet of space that isnonresidential is used for that purpose, and inwhich nondramatic musical works are per-formed publicly.

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