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Urbanization

Urbanization

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Published by: nitinmittal1771995 on Jan 06, 2010
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Urbanization
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The expandingLos Angeles metropolitan areais an early example of uncontrolled urbanization.
Urbanization
(alsospelled "urbanisation") is the physical growth of  urban areas as a result of global change. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people fromrural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. TheUnited Nationsprojected that half of theworld's populationwould live in urban areas at the end of 2008.
Urbanization is closely linked tomodernization,industrialization, and the sociologicalprocess of rationalization.
Contents
 
 
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Movement
 
Percentage of population which is urbanized, by country, as of 2006.
As more and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities, urban growth results. The rapid growth of cities like Chicago in the late 19th century and Shanghai a century later can be attributed largely to peoplefrom rural communities migrating there. This kind of growth is especially commonplace in developingcountries.The rapid urbanization of the world’s population over the twentieth century is described in the 2005 Revisionof the UN World Urbanization Prospects report. The global proportion of urban population rose dramaticallyfrom 13% (220 million) in 1900, to 29% (732 million) in 1950, to 49% (3.2 billion) in 2005. The same reportprojected that the figure is likely to rise to 60% (4.9 billion) by 2030.
. However, French economist PhilippeBocquier, writing in THE FUTURIST magazine, has calculated that "the proportion of the world populationliving in cities and towns in the year 2030 would be roughly 50%, substantially less than the 60% forecast bythe United Nations (UN), because the messiness of rapid urbanization is unsustainable. Both Bocquier andthe UN see more people flocking to cities, but Bocquier sees many of them likely to leave upon discoveringthat there’s no work for them and no place to live." 
According to the UN State of the World Population 2007 report, sometime in the middle of 2007, the majorityof people worldwide will be living in towns or cities, for the first time in history; this is referred to as the arrivalof the "Urban Millennium" or the 'tipping point'. In regard to future trends, it is estimated 93% of urban growthwill occur in developing nations, with 80% of urban growth occurring in AsiaandAfrica.
Urbanization rates vary between countries. The United States and United Kingdom have a far higher  urbanization level than China, India,Swaziland or  Niger , but a far slower annual urbanization rate, since much less of the population is living in a rural area.
Urbanization in the United States never reached the Rocky Mountains in locations such asJacksonHole, Wyoming;Telluride, Colorado;Taos, New Mexico;Douglas County, Colorado and Aspen, Colorado.The state of  Vermonthas also been affected, as has the coast oFlorida, theBirmingham- Jefferson County, ALarea, the Pacific Northwestand the barrier islands of  North Carolina.
 
In theUnited Kingdom, two major examples of new urbanization can be seenin Swindon,Wiltshire and Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire
 . These two towns show some of thequickest growth rates in Europe.
 
Center of  São Paulo, one of the largest metropolisin the world.
[edit]
Causes
Population age comparison between ruralPocahontas County, Iowaand urban Johnson County, Iowa,illustrating the flight of  young adults (red) to urban centers inIowa.
The City of  Chicago, Illinoisis an example of the early American grid system of development. The grid is enforced even on uneven topography.

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