NNTP\u00b7 SIP\u00b7 SSI\u00b7 DNS\u00b7 FTP\u00b7 Gopher\u00b7
HTTP\u00b7 NFS\u00b7 NTP\u00b7 SMPP\u00b7 SMTP\u00b7
SNMP\u00b7 Telnet (more)
communication between devices and a host controller (usually personal computers). USB is intended to replace many varieties of serial and parallel ports. USB can connect computer peripherals such as mice,
keyboards, digital cameras, printers, personal media players, flash
drives, and external hard drives. For many of those devices, USB has
become the standard connection method. USB was designed for
personal computers, but it has become commonplace on other devices
such as smartphones, PDAs and video game consoles, and as a power
cord between a device and an AC adapter plugged into a wall plug for
charging. As of 2008, there are about 2 billion USB devices sold per
year, and approximately 6 billion total sold to date.
3 Device classes
8 Connector types 8.1 USB-A 8.2 USB-B
11.2 Non-standard devices
11.3 Powered USB
12.2 USB 1.0 12.3 USB 2.0 12.4 USB 3.0
13 USB 2.0 bandwidth 14 Related technologies 15 See also
Microsoft produced a USB software stack for Windows and co-authored the OHCI host controller specification with National Semiconductor and Compaq; Philips produced early USB-Audio; and TI produced the most widely used hub chips. One of the co-inventors of USB was Ajay Bhatt, who was later given credit in an Intel television advertisement.
cases \u2014 USB 3.0 standard connectors have introduced some new incompatibilities. However, the device is
designed to work with any previous specification at the maximum speed of the prior equipment, not 3.0. There is
thus substantial backward compatibility.
A USB system has an asymmetric design, consisting of a host, a multitude of downstream USB ports, and multiple peripheral devices connected in a tiered-star topology. Additional USB hubs may be included in the tiers, allowing branching into a tree structure with up to five tier levels. A USB host may have multiple host controllers and each host controller may provide one or more USB ports. Up to 127 devices, including the hub devices, may be
into the host controller. So-calledsharing hubs, which allow multiple computers to access the same peripheral
device(s), also exist and work by switching access between PCs, either automatically or manually. They are popular
in small-office environments. In network terms, they converge rather than diverge branches.
device may provide several functions, for example, a webcam (video device function) with a built-in microphone
(audio device function). Such a device is called acompound device in which each logical device is assigned a
distinctive address by the host and all logical devices are connected to a built-in hub to which the physical USB wire
is connected. A host assigns one and only one device address to a function.
USB device communication is based onpipes (logical channels). Pipes are
connections from the host controller to a logical entity on the device named
an endpoint. The termendpoint is occasionally used to incorrectly refer to
the pipe because, while an endpoint exists on the device permanently, a pipe
is only formed when the host makes a connection to the endpoint. Therefore,
when referring to the connection between a host and an endpoint, the term
directional pipe connected to a bi-directional endpoint that is exclusively
used forcontrol data flow. An endpoint is made into the USB device by the
manufacturer, and therefore, exists permanently. An endpoint of a pipe is
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