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universal serial bus - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

universal serial bus - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Published by: Manit on Jan 07, 2010
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Universal Serial Bus
Original Universal Serial Bus Logo
January 1996
Created by:Intel, Compaq,
Microsoft, Digital
Corporation, IBM,
Northern Telecom
Width in bits :1
Number of
127 per host controller
1.5, 12, or 480 Mbit/s
(0.2, 1.5 or 60
Exte rnal?
The OSI Model
7. Application Laye r

NNTP\u00b7 SIP\u00b7 SSI\u00b7 DNS\u00b7 FTP\u00b7 Gopher\u00b7
HTTP\u00b7 NFS\u00b7 NTP\u00b7 SMPP\u00b7 SMTP\u00b7
SNMP\u00b7 Telnet (more)

6. Presentation Layer
MIME\u00b7 XDR\u00b7 SSL\u00b7 TLS
5. Session Layer
Named Pipes\u00b7 NetBIOS\u00b7 SAP
4. T ransport L ayer
Universal Serial Bus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
USB(Universal Serial Bus) is a specification[1] to establish

communication between devices and a host controller (usually personal computers).[2] USB is intended to replace many varieties of serial and parallel ports. USB can connect computer peripherals such as mice,

keyboards, digital cameras, printers, personal media players, flash
drives, and external hard drives. For many of those devices, USB has
become the standard connection method. USB was designed for
personal computers, but it has become commonplace on other devices
such as smartphones, PDAs and video game consoles, and as a power
cord between a device and an AC adapter plugged into a wall plug for
charging. As of 2008, there are about 2 billion USB devices sold per
year, and approximately 6 billion total sold to date.[3]

The design of USB is standardized by the USB Implementers Forum
(USB-IF), an industry standards body incorporating leading companies
from the computer and electronics industries. Notable members have
included Agere (now merged with LSI Corporation), Apple Inc.,
Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft and NEC.

1 History
2 Overview
3 Device classes

3.1 USB mass-storage
3.2 Human-interface devices (HIDs)
4 Signaling
5 Data packets
5.1 Handshake packets
5.2 Token packets
5.3 Data packets
5.4 PRE "packet"
6 Protocol analyzers
7 Connector properties
7.1 Usability
7.2 Durability
7.3 Compatibility
7.4 Host Interface receptacles (USB 1.x/2.0)
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T ransport L ayer
TCP\u00b7 UDP\u00b7 PPTP\u00b7 L2TP\u00b7 SCTP
3. Network Layer
IP\u00b7 ICMP\u00b7 IPsec\u00b7 IGMP
2. Data Link Laye r
ARP\u00b7 CSLIP\u00b7 SLIP\u00b7 Frame relay\u00b7 ITU-T
G.hn DLL
1. Physical Laye r
RS-232\u00b7 V.35\u00b7 V.34\u00b7 I.430\u00b7 I.431\u00b7 T1\u00b7
E1\u00b7 Ethernet\u00b7 POTS\u00b7 SONET\u00b7 DSL\u00b7
802.11a/b/g/n PHY\u00b7 ITU-T G.hn PHY\u00b7
802.16 WiMax
The basic USBtrident logo; each released
variant has a specific logo variant
A USB Series \u201cA\u201d plug, the most
common USB plug
7.5 Cable plugs (USB 1.x/2.0)

8 Connector types 8.1 USB-A 8.2 USB-B

8.3 Mini and Micro
8.4 Micro-AB Socket OTG
8.5 Proprietary connectors and formats
9 Comparison with FireWire
10 Cables
10.1 Maximum useful distance
11 Power
11.1 Mobile device charger standards

11.2 Non-standard devices
11.3 Powered USB
11.4 Sleep-and-charge

12 Version history
12.1 Prereleases

12.2 USB 1.0 12.3 USB 2.0 12.4 USB 3.0

12.4.1 Features
12.4.2 Availability

13 USB 2.0 bandwidth 14 Related technologies 15 See also

16 References
17 External links
17.1 USB 3.0
The USB 1.0 specification was introduced in 1996. It was intended to
replace the multitude of connectors at the back of PCs, as well as to
simplify software configuration of communication devices. The original
USB 1.0 specification had a data transfer rate of 12 Mbit/s.
USB was created by a core group of companies that consisted of
Compaq, Digital, IBM, Intel, Northern Telecom, and Microsoft. Intel
produced the UHCI host controller and open software stack;

Microsoft produced a USB software stack for Windows and co-authored the OHCI host controller specification with National Semiconductor and Compaq; Philips produced early USB-Audio; and TI produced the most widely used hub chips. One of the co-inventors of USB was Ajay Bhatt, who was later given credit in an Intel television advertisement.

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USB endpoints actually reside on
the connected device: the channels
to the host are referred to as
The USB 2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB-IF at the end of 2001.
Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Lucent Technologies (now Alcatel-Lucent following its merger with Alcatel in 2006),
Microsoft, NEC, and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate than the 1.0 specification
(480 Mbit/s vs 12 Mbit/s).
The USB 3.0 specification was released on November 12, 2008 by the USB 3.0 Promoter Group. Its maximum
transfer rate is up to 10 times faster than the USB 2.0 release. It has been dubbed the SuperSpeed USB.[4][5]
Equipment conforming to any version of the standard will also work with version 3.0 conforming equipment in most

cases \u2014 USB 3.0 standard connectors have introduced some new incompatibilities. However, the device is
designed to work with any previous specification at the maximum speed of the prior equipment, not 3.0. There is
thus substantial backward compatibility.


A USB system has an asymmetric design, consisting of a host, a multitude of downstream USB ports, and multiple peripheral devices connected in a tiered-star topology. Additional USB hubs may be included in the tiers, allowing branching into a tree structure with up to five tier levels. A USB host may have multiple host controllers and each host controller may provide one or more USB ports. Up to 127 devices, including the hub devices, may be

connected to a single host controller.
USB devices are linked in series throughhubs. There always exists one hub known as the root hub, which is built

into the host controller. So-calledsharing hubs, which allow multiple computers to access the same peripheral
device(s), also exist and work by switching access between PCs, either automatically or manually. They are popular
in small-office environments. In network terms, they converge rather than diverge branches.

A physical USB device may consist of several logical sub-devices that are referred to asdevice functions. A single

device may provide several functions, for example, a webcam (video device function) with a built-in microphone
(audio device function). Such a device is called acompound device in which each logical device is assigned a
distinctive address by the host and all logical devices are connected to a built-in hub to which the physical USB wire
is connected. A host assigns one and only one device address to a function.

USB device communication is based onpipes (logical channels). Pipes are
connections from the host controller to a logical entity on the device named
an endpoint. The termendpoint is occasionally used to incorrectly refer to
the pipe because, while an endpoint exists on the device permanently, a pipe
is only formed when the host makes a connection to the endpoint. Therefore,
when referring to the connection between a host and an endpoint, the term

pipe should be used. A USB device can have up to 32 active pipes, 16 into
the host controller and 16 out of the controller.
There are two types of pipes: stream and message pipes. A stream pipe is a
uni-directional pipe connected to a uni-directional endpoint that is used for
bulk, interrupt, and isochronous data flow while a message pipe is a bi-

directional pipe connected to a bi-directional endpoint that is exclusively
used forcontrol data flow. An endpoint is made into the USB device by the
manufacturer, and therefore, exists permanently. An endpoint of a pipe is

addressable with tuple(device_address, endpoint_number) as specified in a TOKEN packet that the host sends
when it wants to start a data transfer session. If the direction of the data transfer is from the host to the endpoint, an
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