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Directed Study and Research in Special Education

Directed Study and Research in Special Education

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Published by: teacherden on Jan 07, 2010
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02/05/2011

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DIRECTED STUDY AND RESEARCH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION
EVIEW
 
OF
L
ITERATURE
 
AND
S
AMPLING
M
ETHOD
Prepared by Geraldine G. Aquino
 References: David, Fely. Understanding and Doing Research. 2002Online Sources: http://www.hswriting.ca/guides/a-brief-guide-to-writing-a-literature-review/ 
 
1. Why is the review of literature important and valuable?A review of literature is a must in research. Review of literature can help aresearcher identify and develop a research problem, formulate a research framework andidentify and use appropriate research methodologies and tools.a.
 Related literature helps the researcher identify and define a research problem
. Anew problem may arise from vague results, conflicting findings or the inability of studyvariables to adequately explain the existence of problem b,
 Literature can be a source of a theoretical basis for the study
. Correlation studiesusually use or generate theories to explain research phenomenon under study.Researchers may use RRL or adopt the same theory or theoretical framework used in thestudyc.
 Literature enables the researcher to learn how to conceptualize a research problemand properly identify and operationally define study variables.
d
 . Related studies provide a basis for identifying and using appropriate researchdesign.
It also helps in the formulation or refinement of research instruments.e.
 Results of related studies provide lessons for data analysis and interpretation
.Findings of a study can be compared to findings of related studiesf.
 Related literature helps prevent unnecessary duplication of a study
. There are manyresearch problems that are already over studied and yet, similar studies are still beingconducted. If a researcher has adequately reviewed related literature about his/her studyunnecessary duplication can be avoided
 
2. Identify and explain the different types of sources in reviewing the literature There are three common types of sources in reviewing the literature and these arethe following:a.
General References
– show where to locate other sources of information related to acertain topic. Examples of general references available in most libraries are
indexes,reviews
and
abstracts
. Indexes are usually published by field of specialization. Foexample in education, there are the Education Index and the Dictionary of EducationResearch. Commonly used abstract are the Psychological Abstract and Social ScienceIndex. b.
 Primary Sources
– results of many studies are published in journals, or monographs.These articles or reports are generally written by those who actually conducted the study,thus they are called as primary sources. Many research journals are published monthly,quarterly or yearly. Some of the commonly used journals in various areas are: Philippine Nursing Journal, Philippine Sociological Review, Journal of Philippine PublicAdministration, Social Psychology Journal, Education Research Journal and many others.c.
 Secondary Sources
– refer to publications where authors cite the work of others. Themost common secondary sources
are books, reviews, yearbooks and encyclopedias
.Secondary sources are good references for overview of the problem3. Identify and explain the different steps in a literature reviewIn reviewing related literature, the following steps may be followed:1. Review the precise definition of the research problem. Note the key variablesspecified in the study objectives and hypothesis.2. Formulate search terms pertinent to the problem or question.3. Using the indexes of general references, search for relevant primary and secondary
 
sources guided by the search terms. Start with the most recent issue and work backwards. Next search for sources listed under terms synonymous or related to the search terms.4. List in a note or index card the bibliographical data of the pertinent sources selected,including the a) author of the source b) its title c)name of publication d)date of  publication and e)pages of the article.5. Read the selected reading materials, take notes and summarize key points. Notes are preferably written in note cards, for easy retrieval information which you can use in your full review, such as: the problem, the objectives and hypotheses, the procedures, major findings and conclusionsAfter taking notes from the different sources reviewed, the researchers prepare thefinal review. Most literature reviews consist of the following parts: introduction, body,summary and conclusion.
 INTRODUCTION 
The introduction briefly describes the nature of the research problem and explains what led the researcher to investigate the question. The summary presents the main topics covered in the literature section.
 BODY 
– The body of the review briefly reports what experts think or what other researchers have found about the research problem. Studies done on one key element or factor of the research problem are reviewed under that topic followed by studies done onother aspects of the problem. The common findings of several studies are summarized inone or two sentences and only when necessary, some specific findings of each study may be presented.
 SUMMARY/SYNTHESIS 
– The summary/synthesis of the literature review ties together the major findings of the studies reviewed. It presents a general picture of what has beenknown or thought of about the problem to date. It points out similar results, as well asconflicting findings.
CONCLUSION 
 – This part presents the course of action suggested by the literature.Based on the state of knowledge revealed by the literature, the researcher could further  justify the need for his/her study.

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