Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
88Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
20252200 Chemistry Form 5 Chapter 5 Note

20252200 Chemistry Form 5 Chapter 5 Note

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2,635 |Likes:
Published by nadaus

More info:

Published by: nadaus on Jan 07, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/11/2012

pdf

text

original

 
SOAP & DETERGENTI)Definition of Soap
o
Soap
are
sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylicacids
o
The general formula of a soap :
 R
COO Na /
 R
COO K 
 R
is an alkyl group which contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms.II)The history of soap manufacturing.
Solvay Process- Carbon dioxide ( obtained from heating CaCo ) is passed intoconcentrated NaCl solution which is saturated with ammonia . NaCl +NH +H O + CO – Na HCO +NH Cl- NaHCO is then heated to obtain soda.2NaHCO – Na CO +H O +CO .
1
Babyloniansmade soaparound 2800B.C.Purifying oils
is recorded on
 Hebrew Tables
around
4000 B.C.
Ash + Lime – Caustic potashCaustic Potash + fats – soapProcess of 
making soapashes
or 
sodiumcarbonate
from commonsalt is patented by Nicholas Leblane(French).
Sodium carbonate
Na COis
produced cheaply
&used for 
glass making ,soaps and detergent
.After 20 years,
ErnestSolvay
( Belgian Chemist)developed Solvay process.
Michel Chevreul
(French)discovered animal fats arecmposed of fatty acids andglycerol ( Causes rapiddevelopment of soap &candle.)Later on,
vegetables oil
isused to replace animal fats.
 
III) Preparation of Soap by
SaponificationSaponification
is a process whereby
the soaps are prepared by hydrolyzing  fats or oils under alkaline conditions. 
It is also the alkaline hydrolysis of esters using alkaline solutions.
 
Fats/ Vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis – soap + glycerol
(Fats- tallow from cow)( Vegetable oils – palm oil or olive oil)For example,- Glyceryl tristearates
is a naturally occuring esters
found in fats or oils.Example of soap,1)sodium palmitate, C H COONa2)Sodium oleate, C H COONa3)Sodium stearate, C H COONa 
To enhance the soap’s marketability,
additives
areused such as
perfume
,
colouring matter
and
antiseptic
.
Production of soap can be precipitated by
addingcommon salt
to the reaction mixture in order toreduce the solubility of soap in water.
Properties of soap
depends on
a)type of alkali used for saponification
2CH COOC HCHCOOC H +3 NaOH(concentrated alkali)CH COOC H(glyceryl tristearate)3C H COONa+CH OH( sodium stearate)SoapCHOHCH OH(glycerol)
 
b)type of animal fats or vegetable oils used
Potassium soap are softer, milder than sodium soap which can be used for bathing.IV) Structure of soap molecule.
When soap is dissolved in water, it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and carboxylate ions.
The active substances in soap is carboxylate ions whichconsists two parts:a) the ‘ Head’
negatively
chargedcontains the – C – O – ionis hydrophilic (
like
to dissolves water) b) the ‘Tail’
1.
positively
charged2.is a long hydrocarbon chain
3.
is hydrophobic (
do not
like to dissolves water)I )Definition of Detergent
Detergent
is a
 synthetic cleasing agents which is made from hydrocarbonsobtained from petroleum fraction.
It is a kind of 
petrochemicals.
There are 3 types of detergent which depends on the charge on detergent ion.a) Anionic Detergent.Head of the detergent particle contains a negatively charged ions.Example : R O SO NaDivide into two types:Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate ( detergent molecule with a benzene ring)R - - S O NaR SO
3

Activity (88)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Nur Alleysa liked this
Rais Rahimi liked this
farid_yunus liked this
Kamil Khairi liked this
Kamil Khairi liked this
farid_yunus liked this
farid_yunus liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->