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Ch02 Summary

Ch02 Summary

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Published by: daovansang on Jan 07, 2010
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CHAPTER SUMMARY – CHAPTER 2Historical Background of Management
Explain why studying management history is important.
Describe some early evidences of management practice.Studying management history is important because it helps us understand today’smanagement practices by seeing their origins. History also helps us see what did and didnot work. Management has been needed by organized endeavors for thousands of years,and we can see early examples of management practice in the construction of theEgyptian pyramids and in the Arsenal of Venice.
Scientific Management
Describe the important contributions made by Frederick W. Taylor and Frank andLillian Gilbreth.
Explain how today’s managers use scientific management.Frederick W. Taylor is known as the “father” of scientific management as he studiedmanual work using scientific principles – that is, guidelines for improving productionefficiency. (See Exhibit 2-2.) The Gilbreths’ primary contribution was finding efficienthand-and-body motions and designing/using proper tools and equipment for optimizingwork performance. Today’s managers continue to use the concepts of scientificmanagement when they analyze basic work tasks to be performed, use time-and-motionstudy to eliminate wasted motions, hire the best qualified workers for a job, and designincentive systems based on output.
General Administrative Theory
Discuss Fayol’s contributions to management theory.
Describe Max Weber’s contribution to management theory.
Explain how today’s managers use general administrative theories of management.
Henri Fayol believed that management was common to all business endeavors butalso was distinct from other business functions. He developed 14 principles of management from which many current management concepts have evolved. (See Exhibit2-3.) Weber described an ideal type of organization he called a bureaucracy, thecharacteristics of which many of today’s large organizations still exhibit. (See Exhibit 2-4.) Today’s managers still use general administrative theories when they perform thefunctions of management and structure their organizations so that resources are usedefficiently and effectively.
Quantitative Approach
Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management.
Discuss how today’s managers use the quantitative approach.The quantitative approach involves applications of statistics, optimization models,information models, and computer simulations to management activities. Today’smanagers use the quantitative approach especially when making decisions as they planand control work activities such as allocating resources, scheduling work, or determiningoptimum inventory levels.
Toward Understanding Organizational Behavior
Describe the contributions of the early advocates of OB.
Explain the contributions of the Hawthorne Studies to the field of management.
Discuss how today’s managers use the behavioral approach.The contributions of the early OB advocates (Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, MaryParker Follett, and Chester Barnard) were varied and distinct, but all believed that peoplewere the most important asset of the organization and should be managed accordingly.(See Exhibit 2-5.) The Hawthorne Studies had a dramatic impact on management beliefs
about the role of people in organizations, which led to a new emphasis on the human behavior factor in managing. The behavioral approach has largely shaped how today’sorganizations are managed. Many of our current theories of motivation, leadership, group behavior and development and other behavioral issues can be traced to the early OBadvocates and the conclusions from the Hawthorne Studies.
The Systems Approach
Describe an organization using the systems approach.
Discuss how the systems approach helps us understandmanagement.Using the systems approach, an organization takes in inputs (resources) from theenvironment and transforms or processes these resources into outputs that are distributedinto the environment. (See Exhibit 2-6.) The systems approach helps us understandmanagement since managers must ensure that all the interdependent units are workingtogether so that the organization’s goals can be achieved. It also helps managers realizethat decisions and actions taken in one organizational area will affect others and viceversa. Finally, the systems approach helps managers recognize that organizations are notself-contained, but instead rely on their environment for essential inputs and as outlets toabsorb their outputs.
The Contingency Approach
Explain how the contingency approach differs from the early theories of management.
Discuss how the contingency approach helps us understand management.Unlike early theories of management which were generally assumed to be universallyapplicable, the contingency approach says that organizations are different, face differentsituations, and require different ways of managing. (See Exhibit 2-8.) The contingency

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