Henri Fayol believed that management was common to all business endeavors butalso was distinct from other business functions. He developed 14 principles of management from which many current management concepts have evolved. (See Exhibit2-3.) Weber described an ideal type of organization he called a bureaucracy, thecharacteristics of which many of today’s large organizations still exhibit. (See Exhibit 2-4.) Today’s managers still use general administrative theories when they perform thefunctions of management and structure their organizations so that resources are usedefficiently and effectively.
Explain what the quantitative approach has contributed to the field of management.
Discuss how today’s managers use the quantitative approach.The quantitative approach involves applications of statistics, optimization models,information models, and computer simulations to management activities. Today’smanagers use the quantitative approach especially when making decisions as they planand control work activities such as allocating resources, scheduling work, or determiningoptimum inventory levels.
Toward Understanding Organizational Behavior
Describe the contributions of the early advocates of OB.
Explain the contributions of the Hawthorne Studies to the field of management.
Discuss how today’s managers use the behavioral approach.The contributions of the early OB advocates (Robert Owen, Hugo Munsterberg, MaryParker Follett, and Chester Barnard) were varied and distinct, but all believed that peoplewere the most important asset of the organization and should be managed accordingly.(See Exhibit 2-5.) The Hawthorne Studies had a dramatic impact on management beliefs