the beam, drilled pier, or column or if the bars werelarger, it would be impossible to fit all of the bars in thecross section. Moreover, if there was an intersectingbeam, there would be no room to install the bars.One option would be to extend the column dowelsstraight into the drilled pier as shown in Fig. 2. Thisoption, however, presents some difficulties:
In many parts of the country, the contract for installationof piles and drilled piers is separate from the contractfor construction of the remaining building structure, sodifferent contractors normally execute each portion.While the foundation contractor’s workers will placethe steel in the drilled piers, union rules may not allowthem to place the column dowels. This would requirecoordination at a time when the building concretecontractor may not be on site yet;
If they are cast in the drilled pier, the column dowelscan’t be moved or adjusted to accommodate beamreinforcement or column locations;
For large diameter drilled piers, the tolerance on pierlocation is much larger than that for the columnlocation. If the column dowels are installed according tothe foundation tolerances, they may be located fartheraway from their intended location than the tolerancesfor column location can accommodate; and
If the dowels are out of tolerance, who is responsiblefor corrective actions—the building concrete contractoror the foundation contractor?A second option would be to design a deeper gradebeam as shown in Fig. 3. Deepening the beam mayeliminate the need for the drilled pier vertical reinforcingbars to be hooked, which eases the congestion to a largeextent. Without the hooks, it’s possible to accommodatean intersecting grade beam. Although this option increasesthe volume of concrete, it may reduce the amount of steelrequired in the grade beam.A third option would be to deepen the grade beamonly at the drilled pier as shown in Fig. 4. This thickenedsection would be placed concurrently with the gradebeam concrete and gives results similar to Option 2. Iteliminates the need for hooks on the drilled pier verticalbars, easing congestion. This option only slightly increasesthe volume of concrete and adds a slight amount of steelat each drilled pier. It does not significantly affect thereinforcing steel required in the grade beam.A fourth option would be to add a pile cap under thegrade beam at the drilled pier as shown in Fig. 5. Thiswould likely require a separate placement, independentof the grade beam work.In the options shown in Fig. 3 to 5, there is enoughdepth to achieve straight embedment of the columndowels. This would be acceptable to most designers.Some designers, however, insist on hooked dowelsbecause they feel this provides more accurate placementof the dowels, ensuring proper lap length projectingabove the grade beam. For that reason, the columndowels are shown hooked in those figures. Anotherconsideration may center on whether or not any momentis transferred into the foundation.A fifth option could be used if the grade beam issupported by a concrete-filled steel pile or casing, asshown in Fig. 6. In this case, the steel jacket is filled withconcrete to an elevation sufficiently below the top so thecolumn dowels could project into the pile to give theproper embedment length. This option is similar toOption 1 in Fig. 2, except in this case the column dowelsare placed with the grade beam. This allows a certainamount of adjustment in placing the dowels. The top ofthe pile is filled with concrete when the concrete for thegrade beam is placed.A sixth option would be to place a blockout in the topof the drilled pier as shown in Fig. 7. This option hasadvantages similar to those of Option 6. There is room foradjusting the location of the dowels for more accurateplacement. As in Option 6, the blockout is filled with thegrade beam concrete placement. Yet another option maybe to use headed bars.
Fig. 6: Option 5—Hold back the concrete from the pile top