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Time Saver Standards for Building Types chapter Classroom

Time Saver Standards for Building Types chapter Classroom

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Published by: charm_choky on Jan 07, 2010
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Factor utama yang menjadi pertimbangan di dalam merancang sebuah ruang perkuliahan adalah:
Metode pengajaran – jenis kurikulum yang relevan
Tempat duduk, meja tulis, dan laptop
Ruanagn dan perlengkapan untuk dosen
Pemakaian elemen pengisi dinding, termasuk papan tulis, layar, ukuran dan letak  jendela, dan lain-lain
Fasilitas ohp dan televise.
Coat racks, gudang, dan peralatan kenyamanan yang lainnya.
System akustik dan tata pencahayaan
Pemanas dan pendingin ruangan
Pertimbangan estetika.
Classroom Seating
The seating arrangement is the most important feature in determining the size and shape of aclassroom. Seating arrangement in a classroom should provide all students with a good view of the front marker board; ready access both to the seats and to marker boards on other walls; anadequate, well illuminated writing surface at each seat a place to set books and papers;reasonable comfort; and privacy in taking examinations.In a class of 50 or fewer students, where a long front marker is desirable, it seems better to havethe front wall longer than the side walls. This presupposes that there are more students in a rowof seats than there are rows; for example, visibility is better in a classroom having row of seventhan in one having seven rows of five seats.In a room measuring 26 feet by 30 feet, with separate tablet armchair for 35 students, the sevenseats in a row might have a spacing of 3 feet-6 inches between seat centers laterally and 4 feet-6inches between the end seat centers and side walls (6 x 3 feet-6 inches + 9 feet = 30 feet).Spacing from front to back in a column might be 3 feet between seat centers with 4 feet behindthe back-seat center and 10 feet between the front-seat center and the front marker board (4 x 3feet + 14 feet = 26 feet). This pattern allows for aisles of about 20 inches columns, a width justunder the 22-inch unit width used as standard in estimating the number of persons who can walk abreast in a corridor or stair hall. This arrangement requires about 22 square feet of space per student. Lecture halls whose seats have folding tablet arms may allow 15 square feet or less per student.Close-packed seating arrangements are not the most desirable, but sometimes are necessary because the larger rooms are not available. Laws in some states provide that no person shallhave to pass more than six others to reach an aisle; hence 14 persons in a row between aisles isan absolute maximum. If 10 to 14 students sit next to each other in a row behind a long striptable or writing ledge, the ledge should be at least 12 inches wide and should provide at least 2feet of length per person. An arrangement whereby the nearer half of the writing surface in frontof each person can fold up and away from the writer give more room for students to pass. Aspacing between rows of 42 inches between seat centers is adequate for most seatingarrangements that use strip tables for writing.Tablet armchairs are commonly used for seating in college classrooms and permit rows to bespaced every 3 feet. They are satisfactory for most classes that do not make use of specialequipment, provided they have a large writing surface and a shelf underneath for book and papers. Tablet armchairs may be found either fixed to the floor, fastened together in sets of twoto six that can be moved as a group, or individually movable. When chairs are fixed to the floor,the arrangements should be one that permits good visibility and ready access. Good visibilitymay be achieved in three ways: by sloping the floor, by staggering seats in consecutive rows, or  by wide spacing.
An arrangement permitting a class of 30 to spread out for examination purpose in a 26-foot by26-foot classroom seating 40 students would be the following: in each of five rows, spaced 3feet apart from front to back between seat centers. Let two triples of seats be placed with thecenters 2 feet apart laterally and with a 4-foot central aisle from front to back between triples. In5-foot aisles at the sides. Let movable tablet armchairs be placed next to the fixed seats for lectures and recitations (keeping the 3-foot aisle by the walls), but let these chair be moved over next to the walls during the examination. Another pattern involves joint activity by twoinstructors whose adjoining classrooms are separated by a folding partition, and can becombined into a larger room for 60 for appropriate portions of the instruction.
Front platform
In front of students’ seating area, there should be enough space for the lecturer to walk back andforth before a long marker board. In rooms with more than five rows of seats there is anadvantage in having a platform, possibly 8 inches above the floor and extending the full width of the room, on which the teacher may walk the length of the board without danger of failing off the end. The marker board should then be raised correspondingly higher above the classroomfloor for better visibility. The teacher needs a table to place lecture note and papers, but it is better to have this table either movable on casters or fixed at the side of the platform where itdoes not block the view of the marker board from the first two rows of students. If a projector isto be used, there must either be a place where it can be mounted permanently at the front of theroom, or there must be provision for rolling it in on a cart and connecting it electrically. In thelatter case, the front platform might be slightly lower and be accessible by a ramp. The teacher seldom sits during a lecture but may wish to sit down during the examination. There should be achair near the table or desk for a teacher.A lecture room should be so placed in a building that it is accessible to students withoutovercrowding of corridors or stairways. Coat racks, adequate bulletin boards, lining thecorridors, and ample toilet facilities should be provided nearby. The room itself should bearranged so that the audience can see well, hear well, and be comfortable. In part this depends ontemperature, humidity, background of light and sound, and seating space. Accessibility provisions in classroom should be addressed.
Seating and Visibility
Good visibility depends not only on the arrangement of marker boards and of projection screenand equipment, but also to a large degree on seating arrangements. Factor to be considered areavoidance of obstructions, slope of the floor and height of the speaker’s platform, viewingdistance, and the extreme vertical and horizontal viewing angels. It is clear that a good lecturer room will not have columns or supports so placed as to block the front screen and marker boardsfrom any seat in the room. However, when a large demonstration table stands on a platform between the marker boards and the audience, the lower 12 to 18 inches of the board often cannot be seen by people in the first few rows. In this case, vertically sliding marker boards are neededso that the writing may be raised to a level where it can be seen by all.A sloping floor in a lecture room will generally add somewhat to the cost of construction, but inmany instances it will be worth the extra cost in providing good visibility for all. The object of asloping floor is to make-it easier for a person to see over or around the heads of those in frontand to give the impression of a smaller room. If the seats in successive rows are staggered sothat the line of sight from one seat to the lecturer goes directly between the centers of two seatsinthe next row, the rise required per row may be reduced by half. Closely interdependent are theslope of the floor and the height of the speaker’s platform. The use of a raised platform for theteacher has advantages in increased visibility in any room seating more than about 40 person, provided that the table or other furniture on the platform does not block the marker board for those in the front rows.Studies of distances and angles for satisfactory viewing indicate that seats should be placed at adistance from a screen not less than 2 nor more than 6 times the width of the screen images to

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