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heroin - wikipedia, the fre

heroin - wikipedia, the fre

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Published by: Lee Gaylord on Jan 08, 2010
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Heroin
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heroin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin
1 of 22
01/07/10 2:14 PM
Heroin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5\u03b1,6\u03b1)-7,8-didehydro- 4,5-epoxy- 17-methylmorphinan-
3,6-diol diacetate
Identifiers
CAS number
561-27-3
ATC code
N02AA09
PubChem
5462328
ChemSpider
4575379
Chemical data
Formula
C21H23NO5
Mol. mass
369.41 g/mol
Synonyms
Diamorphine,
Diacetylmorphine,
Acetomorphine, (Dual)
Acetylated morphine, Morphine
diacetate
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability
<35% (oral), 44\u201361%

(inhaled)[1]
(http://www.blackwell-
synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111

/j.1742-7843.2006.pto_233.x)
Protein binding
0% (morphine metabolite
35%)
Metabolism
hepatic
Heroin, or diacetylmorphine (INN), also known as
diamorphine (BAN), is a semi-synthetic opioid drug
synthesized from morphine, a derivative of the opium poppy.
It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine (di(two)-acetyl-
morphine). The white crystalline form is commonly the

hydrochloride salt diacetylmorphine hydrochloride, though often adulterated thus dulling the sheen and consistency from that to a matte white powder, which however heroin freebase

typically is.[1]
As with other opioids, heroin is used as both a pain-killer and

a recreational drug and has an extremely high potential for
abuse. Frequent and regular administration is associated with
tolerance, moderate physical dependence, and severe
psychological dependence which develops into addiction.

Internationally, heroin is controlled under Schedules I and IV

of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.[2] It is illegal to
manufacture, possess, or sell diacetylmorphine without a
licence in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Iran, India, the
Netherlands, the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland,
Pakistan, the United Kingdom and Swaziland.

Under the name diamorphine, it is a legally prescribed
controlled drug in the United Kingdom. It is available for
prescription to long-term users in the Netherlands, the United
Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany and Denmark alongside

psycho-social care,[3][4] and a similar program is being
campaigned for by liberal political parties in Norway.
Contents
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Pharmacology

4 Usage and effects
4.1 Medical use
4.2 Recreational use

4.3 Effects
5 Regulation
6 Price

7 Production and trafficking: The Golden Triangle
7.1 Manufacturing
7.2 History of heroin traffic
7.3 Trafficking

8 Risks of use
9 Harm reduction
Heroin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin
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01/07/10 2:14 PM
Half life

3\u20135 min (IV, inhaled)[2]
(http://www.blackwell-
synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111

/j.1742-7843.2006.pto_233.x)
Excretion
90% renal as glucuronides, rest
biliary
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.
Category X
Legal status
Prohibited (S9)(AU)Sc he du l e
I(CA) Class A(UK) Schedule
I(US)
Dependence Liability Extremely High
Routes
Inhalation, Transmucosal,
Intravenous, Oral, Intranasal,
Rectal, Intramuscular
(what is this?) (verify) (http://en.wikipedia.org
/w/index.php?&diff=cur&oldid=307063021)
Old advertisement for Bayer
Heroin.
Bayer Heroin bottle.
10 Withdrawal
11 Heroin prescription for addicts

12 Popular culture
12.1 Literature
12.2 Musicians who have used heroin, or
written about heroin use

12.3 Film and TV
13 See also

14 References
15 Literature
16 External links

Etymology
The German drug company Bayer named its new over the
counter drug "Heroin" in 1895.[5] The name was derived from
the German word "heroisch" (heroic), due to its perceived

"heroic" effects upon a user.[5] However, it was chiefly
developed as a morphine substitute for the coughs that did not
have its addictive side-effects. Morphine at the time was a
popular, but addictive recreational drug, so Bayer wanted to

find a similar, but non-addictive substitute to market.[6] However, contrary to Bayer's advertising as a
"non-addictive morphine substitute," heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of dependence amongst its
users.[7]

History
The opium poppy was cultivated in lower

Mesopotamia as long ago as 3400 BC.[8]Th e
chemical analysis of opium in the 19th century
revealed that most of its activity could be
ascribed to two alkaloids, codeine and
morphine.

Diacetylmorphine was first synthesized in
1874 by C. R. Alder Wright, an English
chemist working at St. Mary's Hospital

Medical School in London. He had been

experimenting with combining morphine with various acids. He boiled anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several

hours and produced a more potent, acetylated
form of morphine, now called
diacetylmorphine. The compound was sent to
F. M. Pierce of Owens College in Manchester for analysis. Owens told Wright:
Heroin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heroin
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01/07/10 2:14 PM

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