Solid waste Pollution:
Solid waste is that material which arises from various human activities and isnormally discarded as useless or unwanted. It consists of discarded materialsfrom the urban community as well as accumulation of agriculture, industrial, andmining wastes. The quality of solid waste generated in some major cities of Indiais very high. Thus crores of rupees are being spent on solid waste management.Moreover, in some cases such as cans, bottles, plastic containers, tyres etc. areconsidered cheaper to throw away than to reclaim. This has increased thegeneration of solid waste many folds.
Solid waste can be classified on the basis of content or moisture basis or on thebasis of heating value.A typical classification is given:1.Garbage: This is the putrescible solid waste produced during the preparation orstorage of meat, fruit, vegetables, etc. This waste has a moisture contentof about 70% and heating value of around 6 X 10
J/kg. It may containvaluable minerals and nutrients.2.Rubbish:It is a non-putrescible solid waste. It can either be combustible (such aspaper, wood, rubber, etc.) or non-combustible (such as metals, glass,ceramics, etc.) The water content is about 25% and the heating value of the waste is around 15 X 10
J/kg.3.Pathological waste:Dead animals, humans etc constitute pathological waste. It has a moisturecontent of 85% and a heating value of around 2.5 X 10
J/kg. The wastemay also include hospital waste which comprises of disposable syringes,swabs, bandages, body fluids etc. This kind of waste is highly infectious.4.Industrial waste: The industrial waste includes the waste from industries. The industrialwastes include waste from coal or ore mines, electroplating works, textilesindustries, paper industries, oil refineries etc. Industrial waste containsinorganic or organic pollutants which may or may not be soluble.5.Agricultural waste:It includes animal manure, crop residue etc. Herbicides, fungicides, etcalso contribute to agricultural waste.
The principle sources of solid waste are domestic, commercial and industrial andagricultural activities. Sometimes domestic and commercial wastes areconsidered together and called urban wastes. The composition of urban wasteremains similar throughout the world but the amount generated, ratio and thedensity of the constituents vary widely from place to place.