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Abortion in India

Abortion in India

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Abortion in India
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_in_India
Abortion in India
has been legal since 1971 and there are about 11 million abortions performed per year. Legalizingabortion has not ensured its accessibility to the poor  nor been an effective method for curtailing population growth. Legal abortion wasintroduced in 1971, when concern about burgeoning population growth became anissue for India. Althoughabortionis legal, it is estimated that four million Indianwomen a year still resort to illegal abortions because of social taboos, misconceptionsabout the law, and the lack of skilled practitioners and medical facilities.Giving or taking prenatal tests solely to determine the sex of the fetus is beingcriminalized by the Indian parliament.
Female children are still widely consideredto be a social and financial liability in a country where thedowrysystem
is still a part of marriage. The prenatal tests have been used to detect female fetuses, which arethen aborted. Under Indian law, ending a pregnancy only because a fetus is female hasalready been outlawed, although the practice is common. Poor women who cannotafford the cost of either prenatal testing or abortion often resort to
.Abortion became legal in India in 1971 in order to prevent overpopulation. However,this appears to have been unsuccessful as India now has 1.1 billion people and is thesecond most populus country in the world, afte
China.
In 1994, under pressure froma coalition of activists, the Indian government changed course, outlawing the use of ultrasoundmachines to reveal fetus gender.
In 2002, the penalties were stiffened:up to three years in jail and a $230 fine for the first offense and five yearsimprisonment and $1,160 for the second.
Statistics
Abortions are a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in India. Becausemost of the abortions are not reported and the sex selective abortions are carried outsecretly the statistics of abortionsinIndiais of varying reliability. The available statistics are grossly inadequate as hospitals keep records of only legal and reportedabortions.
[edit] Number of abortions in India
According to the Consortium on
National Consensus for Medical Abortion inIndia
, every year an average of about 11 million abortions take place annually and
around 20,000 women die every year due to abortion related complications
.
Most abortion-related maternal deaths are attributable to illegal abortions.
 In thefollowing table Number of abortions reported includes legal reported inducedabortions.
 
Year
1972197519801985199019952000
 
Number of abortionsreported
24300214197388405583704581215570914723142
Abortion by selection of gender
The Lancet study seemed to confirm that laws were not deterring families from sexselection.
By analyzing national birth records andfertilityhistories from a 1998Indian government survey of 1 million households, the study estimated that atleast 500,000 female fetuses in 1997 were aborted.
Based on that one year, theycame to the 10 million figure. The study also found that families whose first child wasa girl were 30 percent less likely overall to produce another girl. And if the mothershad at least a 10th-grade education, the gap was twice as large as that for illiteratemothers.
Having gender-based abortions have been illegal since 1994.
 [ edit 
 
 ] Female abortion
A lot of people inIndia are turning more towardsabortion for girls because In India, there are less than 93 women for every 100 men in the population. The acceptedreason for such a disparity is the practice of 
femaleinfanticidein India,
prompted bythe existence of a dowry system which requires the family to pay out a great deal of money when a female child is married. For a poor family, the birth of a girl child cansignal the beginning of financial ruin and extreme hardship. Which then they choose to have anultrasoundso they can make sure if they are having a male or female. Theimplication is that by avoiding a girl, a family will avoid paying a large dowry on themarriage of her daughter. According toUNICEF,the problem is getting worse as scientific methods of detecting the sex of a baby and of performing abortions areimproving.
Experts say that sex-selective abortions in India reduced the numberof girls per 1,000 boys from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001.
 [ edit  ] Medical abortion and the law 
In order to prevent the misuse of induced abortions, most countries in the world havecreated strictabortionlaws and so has India.
As per India’s abortion laws onlyqualified doctors, under stipulated conditions, can perform abortion on a womanin a clinic or ahospitalthat has been approved of doing so. The Indian abortionlaws fall under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, which wasenacted by the Indian Parliament in the year 1971. The MTP Act came intoeffect from April 1st, 1972 and was once amended in 1975. The MedicalTermination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act of Indiaclearly states the conditions underwhich a pregnancy can be ended or aborted, the persons who are qualified toconduct the abortion and the place of implementation.
 [ edit 
 
 ] Indications for early medical abortion
[edit] General condition to be fulfilled
 
All women coming to a health facility seeking termination of pregnancy up to 7weeks period of gestation (49 days from the first day of the last menstrual period inwomen with regular cycle of 28 days) provided the following aspects have beenassessed and found appropriate:
frame of the mind of patient and her acceptability of minimum three follow-upvisits
ready for surgical procedure if failure or excessive bleeding occurs
family support
 permission of guardian in case of minor as per MTP Act 1971
easy access to appropriate health care facilityOnly registered medical practitioners as prescribed by the MTP Act are authorized to prescribe mifepristone with misoprostol for medical abortion (Definition 2(d) of section 2 and MTP rule 3). Mifepristone with misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy not exceeding seven weeks, may be prescribed by a registered medical practitioner as prescribed under section 2 (d) and rule 3, having access to a placeapproved by the Government under section 4 (b) and rule (1), for surgical andemergency back-up when such a back-up is indicated. This may include primaryhealth care-clinic or hospital-based set-up. Initial workup, counseling, prescriptionand administration could be in a clinic or in the consulting room. Homeadministration of misoprostol may be advised at discretion in certain cases with anaccess to 24-hours emergency services.
[edit] Choice between Medical and Surgical Abortion
Vacuum Aspiration (Suction evacuation) is the most commonly-used methodfor termination of early pregnancies. However, being a surgical technique, it isassociated with risks of infection, perforation of uterus, incomplete abortionand post-procedure uterine synechiae formation (Asherman’s Syndrome).
The success of abortion with drugs depends on multiple factors including theregimen used,dosage schedule, route of administration and gestational age.However, after counseling, the woman should be allowed to make an informeddecision.
Mifepristone with misoprostol is favourable if pregnancy is = 7 weeks.
Surgical abortion is preferred if patient desires concurrent tubal ligation.
If a woman fulfills the criteria for selecting either method, final choice to begiven to the woman.
 [ edit  ] Contraindications for medical abortion
Where a pregnant woman has a serious medical disease and continuation of pregnancy could endanger her life. Indian MTP act lay a clear guideline underwhich medical abortion is contra indicated
[edit] Contraindications due to Medical Reasons
smoking > 35 years
anemia – hemoglobin < 8 gm %
suspected /confirmed ectopic pregnancy / undiagnosed adnexal mass

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