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AP English Language Midterm Review

AP English Language Midterm Review

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AP English Language Midterm Review
Grammar :
Words, phrases, or clauses that make one part of thesentence dependent on another. Main type is a complex sentence which is formed byan independent and dependent clause. Subordinating conjunctions (underlined) canbe classified as:
Contrast or Concession – use of words or phrases such as “although”,“even though”, “though”, “while”, “whereas”
“Although the book was not entirely free of stereotypes of contemporary Britishcolonial writing 
, it was in some ways remarkable advanced for its time.” – Chinua Achebe
Cause and Effect or Reason – use of words or phrases such as“because”, “since”, “so that”
“Because she crashed her new car, her parents would not let her drive anymore.” 
Condition – uses words or phrases such as “if”, “once”, “unless”
“He would be forced to babysit his little sister unless he found someone else todo it for him.” 
Time – uses words or phrases such as “when”, “whenever”, “after”,“before”, “as”, “once”, “since”, “while”
“I had committed myself to doing it [killing the elephant] when I sent for the rifle.”  – George Orwell 
Progressive Tense
 – There are three forms of progressive tense and three formsof perfect progressive tenses:
Present Progressive – Present progressive tense describes an ongoingaction that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense isformed by using
with the verb form ending in
“They are cheating off of the smartest kid in the class.” 
Past Progressive - Past progressive tense describes a past action whichwas happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using
with the verb form ending in
“They were trying to decide whose house they should meet at.” 
Future Progressive - Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using
will be
shall be
with the verb form ending in
“They will be driving all day.” 
Present Perfect Progressive - Present perfect progressive tensedescribes an action that began in the past, continues in the present, and maycontinue into the future. This tense is formed by using
and the
present participle
of the verb (the verb form ending in
“He has been considering moving out of his parent’s house.” 
Past Perfect Progressive - Past perfect progressive tense describes apast, ongoing action that was completed before some other past action. Thistense is formed by using
had been
and the
present perfect
of the verb (the verbform ending in
“We had been expecting a much easier APUSH midterm exam.” 
Future Progressive Tense - Future perfect progressive tense describes afuture, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. Thistense is formed by using
will have been
and the
present participle
of the verb(the verb form ending in
“By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years.” 
Participial Phrase
 – A participial phrase is a group of words consisting of aparticiple and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function asthe direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or stateexpressed in the participle, such as:
“Rushing out the door 
, he nearly tripped on his dog.” 
Subjunctive Mood 
- A verb is in the subjunctive mood when it expresses acondition which is doubtful or not factual. It is most often found in a clause beginningwith the word if. It is also found in clauses following a verb that expresses a doubt, awish, regret, request, demand, or proposal.
“If I wereyou, I would shut up now.” 
instead of 
“If I wasyou, I would shut up now.” 
Transitive Verb
 – A transitive verb has a direct object.
“The man stole the car.” Stole what? The car.
Rhetoric :
words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning
 – one’s intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing
 – an emphatic statement
declaration. An assertion supported byevidence becomes an argument.
 – an assertion, usually supported by evidence
 – the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing
 – the study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle,use of the “available means of persuasion”
 – a term used for the author, speaker, or person whose perspective(real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing
 – one’s listener or relationship; those to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed
 – a Greek term referring to the character of a person; demonstratecredibility and trustworthiness; one of Aristotle’s three rhetorical appeals
 – a Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated witha broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle’s three rhetorical appeals
 – a Greek term that means “word”; an appeal to logic; facts, statisticaldata, examples, etc; one of Aristotle’s three rhetorical appeals
 – a belief or statement taken for granted without proof 
 – a challenge to a position; an opposing argument
Classical Model of Arrangement: Classical rhetoricians outlined a five-part structure for an oratory or speech that writers still use today:
The Introduction (Exordium) : introduces the writer to the subject undediscussion. Exordium means “beginning a web” in Latin. This is often where thewriter establishes ethos.
The Narration (Narratio) : provides factual information and background materialon the subject at hand, thus beginning the developmental paragraphs, or establisheswhy the subject is a problem that needs addressing. Classical rhetoric describesnarration as appealing to logos, but it often appeals to pathos as the write tries toevoke an emotional response from the audience.
The Confirmation (Confirmatio) : usually the major part of the test, includes thedevelopment or the proof needed to make the writer’s case; contains the mostspecific and concrete detail in the text; generally makes the strongest appeal tologos
The Refutation (Refutatio) : addresses the counterargument and is often used asa bridge between the writer’s proof and conclusion. It is recommended that this partof the essay be placed closer to the end. The counterargument’s appeal is largely tologos.
The Conclusion (Peroratio) : brings the essay to a close. The writer usuallyappeals to pathos and reminds the reader of the ethos established earlier. Theconclusion brings all the writer’s ideas together and answers the question, so what?The last words and ideas of a text are the one’s the audience is most likely toremember.
Patterns of Development: (aka. Self-Explanatory Types of Writing)
Narration : Narration refers to telling a story or recounting a series of events. Itcan be based on personal experience or on knowledge gained from reading or observation. Narratives usually are chronologically told. They include detail, a pointof view, and sometimes elements such as dialogue.
Description : Description is similar to narration because they both use manyspecific details. Unlike narration, description emphasizes the senses by painting apicture of how something looks, sounds, smells, tastes, or feels. Description is often

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