Future prospects of enzyme engineering
to clean up factory effluents and pollution in water and soil. Many processes can be made faster andcheaper by using the right enzyme and conditions.Optimum conditions are maintained during factory production by use of bioreactors. These are vesselswhich are designed to provide the ideal environment for reactions involving enzymes or living organisms.Source of enzymes used commercial production is plant, animal and microbial cells. Animal enzymes usedcurrently are lipases, tripsin, rennets etc. Most prevalent plant enzymes are papain, proteases, amylases andsoybean lipoxygenase. These enzymes are used in food industries, for example, papain extracted from papaya fruit is used as meat tenderizer and pancreatic protease in leather softening and manufacture of detergents. In addition microbial enzymes have gained much popularity. Production of primary andsecondary metabolites by microorganism is possible only due to involvement of various enzymes. They areof two types: the extracellular and the intracellular enzymes. There is a wide range of extracellular enzymes produced by pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms such as cellulose, polymethylegalactouronase, pectinmethylesterase etc. These enzyme helps in establishment in host tissues or decomposition of organicsubstrates. The intracellular enzyme like invertase, uricoxidase, asparaginase are of high economic valueand difficult to extract as they produced inside the cell. They can be extracted by breaking the cells bymeans of a homogenizer or a ball mill and extracted them through the biochemical process.Biotechnology offers an increasing potential for the production of goods to meet various humanneeds. In enzyme technology – a sub-field of biotechnology – new processes have been and are beingdeveloped to manufacture both bulk and high added- value products utilizing enzymes as biocatalysts, inorder to meet needs such as food (e.g., bread, cheese, beer, vinegar), fine chemicals (e.g., amino acids,vitamins), and pharmaceuticals. Enzymes are also used to provide services, as in washing andenvironmental processes, or for analytical and diagnostic purposes. The driving force in the development of enzyme technology, both in academia and industry, has been and will continue to be:•The development of new and better products, processes and services to meet these needs; and/or •The improvement of processes to produce existing products from new raw materials as biomass.The goal of these approaches is to design innovative products and processes that are not only competitive but also meet criteria of sustainability. A positive effect in all these three fields is required for a sustainable process. Criteria for the quantitative evaluation of the economic and environmental impact are in contrastwith the criteria for the social impact, easy to formulate. In order to be economically and environmentallymore sustainable than an existing processes, a new process must be designed to reduce not only theconsumption of resources (e.g., raw materials, energy, air, water), waste production and environmentalimpact, but also to increase the recycling of waste per kilogram of product.
Sources of enzymes:
Biologically active enzymes may be extracted from any living organism. A very wide rangeof sources are used for commercial enzyme production from
, from spinach to snakevenom. Of the hundred or so enzymes being used industrially, over a half are from fungi and yeast and over a thirdare from bacteria with the remainder divided between animal (8%) and plant (4%) sources. A very much larger number of enzymes find use in chemical analysis and clinical diagnosis. Non-microbial sources provide a larger proportion of these, at the present time. Microbes are preferred to plants and animals as sources of enzymes because:
1.they are generally cheaper to produce.2.their enzyme contents are more predictable and controllable,3.reliable supplies of raw material of constant composition are more easily arranged, and4.plant and animal tissues contain more potentially harmful materials than microbes, including phenolic compounds (from plants), endogenous enzyme inhibitors and proteases.
. Some important industrial enzymes and their sources.EnzymeEC numberSourceIntra/extra-cellular Scale of productionIndustrial use
2009/08/27Submitted by: Megh Raj Bhatt