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Multi Agent Systems and Physical Distribution Systems

Multi Agent Systems and Physical Distribution Systems

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Published by: bilgehanerdem on Jan 10, 2010
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04/29/2011

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 SAKARYA UNIVERSITY  Institute of Science and Technology Industrial Engineering Department  Systems and Agent Systems Engineering 
“Multi-agent Systems and Physical Distribution Systems“Mümin ÖZCAN – 0950D06003
Overview
Multi-agent Systems
Characteristics of Multiagent Environments
Architecture of Multiagent Systems
Applications of Multiagent Systems
Summary
Application
Physical Distribution Systems
A System Approach
The benefits of Physical Distribution
ReferencesMultiagent Systems (MAS) is the subfield of AI (Artificial Intelligence) that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple agents andmechanisms for coordination of independent agents’ behaviors. Multiagent systems are the best way to characterize or design distributed computing systems. Information processing isubiquitous. There are computer processors seemingly everywhere, embedded in all aspects of our environment. Your kitchen likely has many, in such places as the microwave oven,toaster, and coffee maker, and this number does not consider the electrical power system,which probably uses hundreds in getting electricity to the kitchen. The large number of  processors and the myriad ways in which they interact makes distributed computing systemsthe dominant computational paradigm today. When the processors in the kitchen are
 
intelligent enough to be considered agents, then it becomes convenient to think of them inanthropomorphic terms. For example, "the toaster knows when the toast is done," and "thecoffee pot knows when the coffee is ready." When these systems are interconnected so theycan interact, then they should also know that the coffee and toast should be ready atapproximately the same time. In these terms, your kitchen becomes more than just acollection of processors—a distributed computing system—it becomes a multiagent system[1].
 Single-Agent Systems.
In general, the agent in a single-agent system models itself, theenvironment, and their interactions. Of course the agent is itself part of the environment,agents are considered to have extra-environmental components as well. They are independententities with their own goals, actions, and knowledge. In a single agent system, no other suchentities are recognized by the agent. Thus, even if there are indeed other agents in the world,they are not modeled as having goals, etc.: they are just considered part of the environment.The point being emphasized is that although agents are
also
a part of the environment, theyare explicitly modeled as having their own goals, actions, and domain knowledge [Figure 1].
 
 Multiagent Systems.
Multiagent systems differ from single-agent systems in that severalagents exist which model each other’s goals and actions. In the fully general multiagentscenario, there may be direct interaction among agents (communication). Although thisinteraction could be viewed as environmental stimuli, we present inter-agent communicationas being separate from the environment. From an individual agent’s perspective, multiagentsystems differ from single-agent systems most significantly in that the environment’sdynamics can be affected by other agents. In addition to the uncertainty that may be inherentin the domain, other agents intentionally affect the environment in unpredictable ways. Thus,all multiagent systems can be viewed as having dynamic environments [Figure 2] [3].

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