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Data Network Repor 20090929

# Data Network Repor 20090929

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01/09/2010

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1
Problems
1.

How ADSL increases its bandwidth in compare to Modems while they adopt the
LECs’s facilities.

1.

Although Modems and ADSL adopt the same facilities from telephone companies, they have differentcapability on bandwidth; Modems provides internet service with 56 Kbps, while their kinsman ADSLcould support more than 10Mbps service. The differences come from their configurations.a.

Modems.Figure 1. The configuration of Modems.When a computer wishes to send digital signals through a dial-up line, the data must first be convertedto analog form by a modem. These analog signals then transmitted through local hop to codec in whichthey will be reconverted to digital form, fig. 1.As telephone was invented to carry human voice, which meaningful frequency varies from 300Hz to3400Hz, the entire system has been optimized for this purpose. At the point each local loop meets theend office, the wire run through a filter that attenuates all frequencies below 300Hz and above 3400Hz.The cutoff is 3dB, we the bandwidth is quoted 4000Hz.As Nyquist theory, f
sample
= 4 KHz * 2 = 8Khz.The number of bits per sample in the US and the worldwide is 8, in which 7 bits are for data, the rest 1bit is for control. Therefore, its bit rate is 7*8000 = 56000bps. In case of Europe, all 8 bits are availablefor data, its bit rate is 8*8000 = 64000bps.

2b.

ADSLFigure 2. The configuration of ADSL.The differences come from the local hop, fig. 2. The line from modem is connected to different kind of switch, one that does not have a filter; therefore, making the entire capacity of the local hops available.It is not the artificial 3100Hz bandwidth, but it own physical capability, which could be up to 50 MHz incase of 3 UTP.Figure 3. Discrete multitone modulation on ADSL.Initial ADSL provide 1.1 MHz bandwidth, for example, on Fig. 3, the entire bandwidth is divided to 256independence channels of 4312.5Hz each. Channel 0 is used for POTS for telephone service; channels 1-5 are not employed. The remaining 250 channels are used for upstream and downstream purpose.The actual data would be sent with QAM modulation, with up to 15 bits per baud. Therefore, with 4000baud, we get the final bit rate for upstream and downstream: