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A Handbook for the Mechanical Designer

A Handbook for the Mechanical Designer

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Published by: nile_aster on Jan 11, 2010
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A Handbookfor theMechanical Designer
Second Edition
Copyright 1999
This handy engineeringinformation guide is a token ofLoren Cook Company’s appreciationto the many fine mechanical designersin our industry.
Springfield, MO
 
Fan Basics
Fan Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Fan Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Fan Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Fan Performance Tables and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Fan Testing - Laboratory, Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature . . . . . . . . . 3Use of Air Density Factors - An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction . . . . . . . .4-5Impeller Designs - Centrifugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6Impeller Designs - Axial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components. . . . . . . . . . . . 8Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans11-12Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive Centrifugal Fans . . 13Fan Installation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Fan Troubleshooting Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Motor and Drive Basics
Definitions and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Types of Alternating Current Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-18Motor Insulation Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Motor Service Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Locked Rotor KVA/HP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Motor Efficiency and EPAct. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Full Load Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-22General Effect of Voltage and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than ThreeInsulated Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-25Belt Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Estimated Belt Drive Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Bearing Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
System Design Guidelines
General Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Process Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Kitchen Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Rules of Thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-32Noise Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table of Contents
 
System Design Guidelines (cont.)
Sound Power and Sound Power Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Room Sones —dBA Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Noise Criteria Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Design Criteria for Room Loudness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35-36Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Vibration Severity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38-39
General Ventilation Design
Air Quality Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Air Change Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Suggested Air Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. . . . . . . 42Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces . . . . . . 43Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Rate of Heat Gain Commercial Cooking Appliances inAir-Conditioned Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances . . . . . . 46Filter Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants . . . . . . . 47Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health . . . . . . . . . . 48
Duct Design
Backdraft or Relief Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Screen Pressure Drop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Duct Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components. . . . . . . . . 53Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 54U.S. Sheet Metal Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Recommended Metal Gauges for Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Wind Driven Rain Louvers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Heating & Refrigeration
Moisture and Air Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Properties of Saturated Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Cooling Load Check Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59-60Heat Loss Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61-62Fuel Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Fuel Gas Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Table of Contents

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