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Introduction to Vectors and Tensors

# Introduction to Vectors and Tensors

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04/16/2013

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INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS AND TENSORS
Linear and Multilinear AlgebraVolume 1
Ray M. Bowen
Mechanical EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege Station, Texas
and
C.-C. Wang
Mathematical SciencesRice UniversityHouston, Texas
Copyright Ray M. Bowen and C.-C. Wang(ISBN 0-306-37508-7 (v. 1))

iii
____________________________________________________________________________
PREFACETo Volume 1
This work represents our effort to present the basic concepts of vector and tensor analysis. VolumeI begins with a brief discussion of algebraic structures followed by a rather detailed discussion of the algebra of vectors and tensors. Volume II begins with a discussion of Euclidean Manifoldswhich leads to a development of the analytical and geometrical aspects of vector and tensor fields.a discussion of general differentiable manifolds. We have not included a discussion of generaldifferentiable manifolds. However, we have included a chapter on vector and tensor fields definedon Hypersurfaces in a Euclidean Manifold.In preparing this two volume work our intention is to present to Engineering and Sciencestudents a modern introduction to vectors and tensors. Traditional courses on applied mathematicshave emphasized problem solving techniques rather than the systematic development of concepts.As a result, it is possible for such courses to become terminal mathematics courses rather thancourses which equip the student to develop his or her understanding further.As Engineering students our courses on vectors and tensors were taught in the traditionalway. We learned to identify vectors and tensors by formal transformation rules rather than by theircommon mathematical structure. The subject seemed to consist of nothing but a collection of mathematical manipulations of long equations decorated by a multitude of subscripts andsuperscripts. Prior to our applying vector and tensor analysis to our research area of moderncontinuum mechanics, we almost had to relearn the subject. Therefore, one of our objectives inwriting this book is to make available a modern introductory textbook suitable for the first in-depthexposure to vectors and tensors. Because of our interest in applications, it is our hope that thisbook will aid students in their efforts to use vectors and tensors in applied areas.The presentation of the basic mathematical concepts is, we hope, as clear and brief aspossible without being overly abstract. Since we have written an introductory text, no attempt hasbeen made to include every possible topic. The topics we have included tend to reflect ourpersonal bias. We make no claim that there are not other introductory topics which could havebeen included.Basically the text was designed in order that each volume could be used in a one-semestercourse. We feel Volume I is suitable for an introductory linear algebra course of one semester.Given this course, or an equivalent, Volume II is suitable for a one semester course on vector andtensor analysis. Many exercises are included in each volume. However, it is likely that teacherswill wish to generate additional exercises. Several times during the preparation of this book wetaught a one semester course to students with a very limited background in linear algebra and nobackground in tensor analysis. Typically these students were majoring in Engineering or one of thePhysical Sciences. However, we occasionally had students from the Social Sciences. For this onesemester course, we covered the material in Chapters 0, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 from Volume I and selectedtopics from Chapters 9, 10, and 11 from Volume 2. As to level, our classes have contained juniors,