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Chapter 009

Chapter 009

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Published by: lani416 on Jan 11, 2010
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Lewis et al: Medical-Surgical Nursing: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems, 7
Key PointsChapter 9: Stress and Stress Management
occurs when individuals perceive that they cannot adequately cope with thedemands being made on them or with the threats to their well-being.
Key personal characteristics—such as hardiness, sense of coherence, resilience, andattitude—buffer the impact of stress.
The physiologic response of the person to stress is reflected in the interrelationship of thenervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Stress activation of these systems affects other systems, such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, and reproductivesystems.
Stress can have effects on cognitive function, including poor concentration, memory problems, distressing dreams, sleep disturbances, and impaired decision-making.
Long-term stress may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosisand hypertension. Other conditions either precipitated or aggravated by stress includemigraine headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, and peptic ulcers.
is defined as a person’s cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specificexternal or internal stressors that seem to exceed available resources.
Coping can be either positive or negative. Positive coping includes activities such asexercise and use of social support. Negative coping may include substance abuse anddenial.
Coping strategies can also be divided into two broad categories: emotion-focused copingand problem-focused coping.
Emotion-focused coping
involves managing the emotions that an individual feels whena stressful event occurs.
Problem-focused coping
attempts to find solutions to resolvethe problems causing the stress.
Relaxation strategies
can be used to cope with stressful circumstances and elicit therelaxation response.
relaxation response
is the state of physiologic and psychologic deep rest. It is theopposite of the stress response and is characterized by decreased sympathetic nervous
Copyright © 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

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