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Titu Andreescu - Contests Around the World 1999 - 2000

Titu Andreescu - Contests Around the World 1999 - 2000

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1
1999 National Contests: Problems and Solutions

1

2

Belarus

1.1

Belarus

National Olympiad, Fourth Round
Problem 10.1 Determine all real numbers a such that the function f (x) = {ax + sin x} is periodic. Here {y} is the fractional part of y.
r Solution: The solutions are a = π , r ∈ Q. r First, suppose a = π for some r ∈ Q; write r = q > 0. Then

p q

with p, q ∈ Z,

f (x + 2qπ) = = =

p (x + 2qπ) + sin(x + 2qπ) qπ

p x + 2p + sin x qπ p x + sin x qπ = f (x)

so f is periodic with period
1
1999 National Contests: Problems and Solutions

1

2

Belarus

1.1

Belarus

National Olympiad, Fourth Round
Problem 10.1 Determine all real numbers a such that the function f (x) = {ax + sin x} is periodic. Here {y} is the fractional part of y.
r Solution: The solutions are a = π , r ∈ Q. r First, suppose a = π for some r ∈ Q; write r = q > 0. Then

p q

with p, q ∈ Z,

f (x + 2qπ) = = =

p (x + 2qπ) + sin(x + 2qπ) qπ

p x + 2p + sin x qπ p x + sin x qπ = f (x)

so f is periodic with period

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1
1999 National Contests:Problems and Solutions
1
 
2
Belarus
1.1 Belarus
National Olympiad, Fourth Round
Problem 10.1
Determine all real numbers
a
such that the function
(
x
) =
{
ax
+ sin
x
}
is periodic. Here
{
y
}
is the fractional part of 
y.
Solution:
The solutions are
a
=
rπ
,
r
Q
.First, suppose
a
=
rπ
for some
r
Q
; write
r
=
pq
with
p
,
q
Z
,
q >
0. Then
(
x
+ 2
) =
p
(
x
+ 2
) + sin(
x
+ 2
)
=
px
+ 2
 p
+ sin
x
=
px
+ sin
x
=
(
x
)so
is periodic with period 2
.Now, suppose
is periodic; then there exists
p >
0 such that
(
x
) =
(
x
+
 p
) for all
x
R
. Then
{
ax
+sin
x
}
=
{
ax
+
ap
+sin(
x
+
 p
)
}
for all
x
R
; in other words
g
(
x
) =
ap
+sin(
x
+
 p
)
sin
x
is an integerfor all
x
. But
g
is continuous, so there exists
k
Z
such that
g
(
x
) =
k
for all
x
R
. Rewriting this givessin(
x
+
 p
)
sin
x
=
k
ap
for all
x
R
.Letting
x
=
y
,
y
+
 p
,
y
+ 2
 p
, ...,
y
+ (
n
1)
 p
and summing givessin(
y
+
np
)
sin
y
=
n
(
k
ap
) for all
y
R
and
n
N
.Since the left hand side of this equation is bounded by 2, we concludethat
k
=
ap
and sin(
x
+
p
) = sin
x
for all
x
R
. In particular,sin
π
2
+
 p
= sin
π
2
= 1 and hence
p
= 2
for some
m
N
. Thus
a
=
k p
=
k
2
=
rπ
with
r
=
k
2
m
Q
, as desired.
Problem 10.2
Prove that for any integer
n >
1 the sum
of alldivisors of 
n
(including 1 and
n
) satisfies the inequalities
k
n < S <
2
kn,
where
k
is the number of divisors of 
n.
Solution:
Let the divisors of 
n
be 1 =
d
1
< d
2
<
···
< d
k
=
n
;
 
1999 National Contests: Problems and Solutions
3
then
d
i
d
k
+1
i
=
n
for each
i
. Thus
=
k
i
=1
d
i
=
k
i
=1
d
i
+
d
k
+1
i
2
>
k
i
=1
 
d
i
d
k
+1
i
=
k
n,
giving the left inequality. (The inequality is strict because equalitydoes not hold for
d
1
+
d
k
2
d
1
d
k
.) For the right inequality, let
2
=
ki
=1
d
2
i
and use the Power Mean Inequality to get
k
=
ki
=1
d
i
k
 
ki
=1
d
2
i
k
=
 
2
k
so
 
kS 
2
.
Now
2
n
2
=
k
i
=1
d
2
i
n
2
=
k
i
=1
1
d
2
k
+1
i
n
j
=1
1
 j
2
<π
2
6since
d
1
, ...,
d
k
are distinct integers between 1 and
n
. Therefore
 
kS 
2
<
 
kn
2
π
2
6
<
2
kn.
Problem 10.3
There is a 7
×
7 square board divided into 49 unitcells, and tiles of three types: 3
×
1 rectangles, 3-unit-square corners,and unit squares. Jerry has infinitely many rectangles and one corner,while Tom has only one square.(a) Prove that Tom can put his square somewhere on the board(covering exactly one unit cell) in such a way that Jerry can nottile the rest of the board with his tiles.(b) Now Jerry is given another corner. Prove that no matter whereTom puts his square (covering exactly one unit cell), Jerry cantile the rest of the board with his tiles.
Solution:
(a) Tom should place his square on the cell marked
X
in the boardsbelow.

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