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Linux System Admin Guide

Linux System Admin Guide

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Published by: jali110 on Jan 12, 2010
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The Linux System Administrators’Guide
Version 0.6.1
Lars Wirzenius
<
liw@iki.fi
>
 
The Linux System Administrators’ Guide: Version 0.6.1
by Lars WirzeniusAn introduction to system administration of a Linux system for novices.Copyright 1993–1998 Lars Wirzenius.Trademarks are owned by their owners.Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and thispermission notice are preserved on all copies.Permission is granted to process the document source code through TeX or other formatters and print the results, anddistribute the printed document, provided the printed document carries copying permission notice identical to thisone, including the references to where the source code can be found and the official home page.Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatimcopying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identicalto this one.Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the aboveconditions for modified versions.The author would appreciate a notification of modifications, translations, and printed versions. Thank you.
 
Table of Contents
Dedication...................................................................................................................................................7Source and pre-formatted versions available..........................................................................................81. Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................9
The Linux Documentation Project...................................................................................................10
2. Overview of a Linux System...............................................................................................................12
Various parts of an operating system ...............................................................................................12Important parts of the kernel............................................................................................................12Major services in a UNIX system....................................................................................................14
init
..........................................................................................................................................14Logins from terminals ............................................................................................................14Syslog.....................................................................................................................................15Periodic command execution:
cron
and
at
............................................................................15Graphical user interface..........................................................................................................15Networking.............................................................................................................................15Network logins .......................................................................................................................16Network file systems ..............................................................................................................16Mail.........................................................................................................................................16Printing...................................................................................................................................17The filesystem layout..............................................................................................................17
3. Overview of the Directory Tree..........................................................................................................19
Background......................................................................................................................................19The root filesystem...........................................................................................................................21The
/etc
directory ..........................................................................................................................22The
/dev
directory ..........................................................................................................................25The
/usr
filesystem.........................................................................................................................25The
/var
filesystem.........................................................................................................................26The
/proc
filesystem ......................................................................................................................27
4. Using Disks and Other Storage Media..............................................................................................31
Two kinds of devices........................................................................................................................31Hard disks ........................................................................................................................................32Floppies............................................................................................................................................35CD-ROM’s.......................................................................................................................................36Tapes ................................................................................................................................................37Formatting........................................................................................................................................37Partitions ..........................................................................................................................................39The MBR, boot sectors and partition table.............................................................................40
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