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Active ingredients for healthy animals, Rice - the technological ingredient for aquafeed

Active ingredients for healthy animals, Rice - the technological ingredient for aquafeed

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With a production of over 600 million tonnes per year, rice is the most important food-cereal and serves as a basic ingredient for people all over the world. On the other hand only six percent of the total rice production is used in animal nutrition.
With a production of over 600 million tonnes per year, rice is the most important food-cereal and serves as a basic ingredient for people all over the world. On the other hand only six percent of the total rice production is used in animal nutrition.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Jan 13, 2010
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 January | February 2010Feature title: Active ingredients for healthy animalsRice - the technological ingredient for aquafeed
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
 
Active ingredients for healthy animals
Rice
 
- the technological ingredient for aquafeed 
 
 W
ith a production of over 600 milliontonnes per year, riceis the most impor-tant food-cereal and serves as a basicingredient for people all over the world. On the other hand only sixpercent of the total rice production isused in animal nutrition.
Rice has, however, various nutritionaland technological properties which makes ita fascinating ingredient for aquafeed.
An extra-ordinary cereal
Adapted to growth in a variety of regionsworldwide, rice (Oryza sativa L) consists of over 120,000 cultivars. Just as for other cere-als the rice’s endosperm is rich in starch (upto 80 percent). Compared to other starchsources (see Table 1), rice has exception-ally small starch granules. This morphologyexplains the high water/oil absorption of rice flour.Rice starch is characterised by a very lowcontent of amylopectin-chains of intermedi-ate degree of polymerisation (DP12-22). Theshort and long chains in rice amylopectin(DP6-9 & DP>25) limit retrogradation.In addition, rice amylose is character-ised by a very high degree of branching,inhibiting amylose diffusing out of starchgranules. These specific characteristicslead to a favourable behaviour duringextrusion-processes.Compared to other starch sources, ricederivatives benefit also from a neutral taste.
A large variety of rice starches
There is a large variety in the char-acteristics of rice starches and resultingfunctional properties.The various rice varieties differstrongly in amylose/amylopectin content,giving the starch of each variety a specificset of technological characteristics.This enables the feed technolo-gist to play with gel strength, gel-ling temperature and starch granulerigidity.Not only is there a large natural rangeof starch characteristics, but also a widearray of treatments, ranging from prege-latinisation to acetylation, allow to adjustthe characteristics of the starch/flour tothe specific technological requirementsof a fish feed.
by Karel Thurman, BENEO-Animal Nutrition, Belgium
When rice extrudates are cooled the product’s structure is more homogeneous and the surface smoother.The surface of extrudates is important when it comes to the behaviour of the pellet in water 
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F: Ingredient
Table 1:
Characteristics of different starches
Ricestarch Wheat starchCornStarchTapiocaStarchPotatoStarch
Size (µm) 2-8 3-40 15-25 20-35 15-80Shape Hexagonal Oval Hexagonal Hexagonal OvalGel structure Soft, creamy Firm Firm Sticky Sticky
An extrusion enhancer
In the extrusion process, one of themost important characteristics is the hot-set of a flour.This is the increase of viscosity during thecooling of the dough.Rice flours/starches arecharacterised by a very high hot set tem-perature and viscosity increase rate duringexpansion of the dough after the extruder’s die,certainly compared to other cereal flours.As theviscosity is increasing earlier and faster with ricederivatives,the expanded dough will give moreresistance to the formation of steam pockets.When the extrudates are cooled down,the product’s structure is more homogene-ous and the surface will be smoother. Thesurface of the extrudates is importantwhen it comes to the behaviour of thepellet in water.Via the use of rice starches, water penetra-tion in the pellet can be limited increasing thedurability of the pellet in the water.
A floatability regulator
Not only the surface of the pellet issmoother when rice flour is used in theextrusion process. Also the expansion of 
-January-February 2010 | IttIol
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F: Ingredient
"The surface of the extrudates isimportant whenit comes to thebehaviour of the pellet in water"
-i i
 
BENEO-Animal Nutrition offers with itsbroad range of rice products tailor-madesolutions for a number of challenges withwhich fish feed producers are confrontedon an every-day base.Studies on seabream(Palmegiano et al, 2007) andrainbow trout (Palmegianoet al., 2006) indicate thatrice protein concentrate is agood alternative to fish mealand an inclusion up to 20percent without a negativeinfluence on the zootechni-cal performances nor thefillet quality is feasible.
Conclusion
Despite the fact that riceis mainly used in humannutrition, the cereal hasa number of exceptionalcharacteristics, making itthe ideal technologicalingredient for the aquafeedproducer. Rice protein con-centrate on the other handcan be a nutritionally valu-able alternative to fish meal.the extrudate products is modified whenrice flour is added.Rice starch has a positive effect onthe expansion of an extrudates.Since the expansion characteristics aredirectly linked to the bulk density of thepellet, adding rice flour or starches to the fishfeed enables the aquafeed producer to adjustthe floating capacities of extruded fish feed.
Optimising dough viscosity
Also when it comes to dough-feeding of specific aquatic species, rice ingredients can beused to optimise the viscosity of the product.Depending on the type of application, ricestarches/flours can help in the assessmentof an improved elasticity or durability of thedough in contact with water.This allows to fine-tune thecharacteristics of the doughto the requirements for eachspecies.
Rice proteinas alternativeto fishmeal
During the starchextraction of rice, a highlyconcentrated rice proteinis produced. The aminoacid profile of rice proteinis more equilibrated thanwheat protein.Because of the boom-ing aquafeed-business, anincremental stress is puton global fishmeal supplies.Nutritionists are lookingmore and more into vegetalprotein sources to replacethis expensive and rare ingre-dient and to develop a moresustainable aquafeed produc-tion which alleviates theenvironmental consequencesof industrial aquaculture.
Table 2:
Amino acidprofile of rice protein(aa per % protein)
 Amino Acid%protein
Lysine 4.2Methionine 2.1Cysteine 2.2Threonine 3.7Valine 5.5Phenylalanine 4.7Tyrosine 3.4Tryptophane 1.1Leucine 7.3Isoleucine 3.7Arginine 7.8Histidine 2.7Alanine 5.9Aspar. Acid 9.0Glutam. Acid 14.6Glycine 5.1Proline 4.5Serine 4.7
About the company
BENEO-Animal Nutrition offersa broad range of natural ingredientswith nutritional benefits. The productrange comprises vegetable proteins,functional fibers and carbohydratesas well as chicory-based prebiotics.BENEO-Animal Nutrition translatesthe BENEO-Group’s unique exper-tise in human food to the world of pet food, animal feed and aquafeed.The BENEO-Group specialises in theproduction and commercialization of functional feed ingredients and is abusiness unit of the Südzucker Group.For more information visit:www.BENEO-An.com
"Studies on seabream and rainbow trout indicate that rice protein concentrate isa good alternative to fish meal and aninclusion up to 20 percent without anegative influence on the zootechnical  performances nor the fillet quality isfeasible"
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F: Ingredient
-January-February 2010 | IttIol
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