Active ingredients for healthy animals
- the technological ingredient for aquafeed
ith a production of over 600 milliontonnes per year, riceis the most impor-tant food-cereal and serves as a basicingredient for people all over the world. On the other hand only sixpercent of the total rice production isused in animal nutrition.
Rice has, however, various nutritionaland technological properties which makes ita fascinating ingredient for aquafeed.
An extra-ordinary cereal
Adapted to growth in a variety of regionsworldwide, rice (Oryza sativa L) consists of over 120,000 cultivars. Just as for other cere-als the rice’s endosperm is rich in starch (upto 80 percent). Compared to other starchsources (see Table 1), rice has exception-ally small starch granules. This morphologyexplains the high water/oil absorption of rice flour.Rice starch is characterised by a very lowcontent of amylopectin-chains of intermedi-ate degree of polymerisation (DP12-22). Theshort and long chains in rice amylopectin(DP6-9 & DP>25) limit retrogradation.In addition, rice amylose is character-ised by a very high degree of branching,inhibiting amylose diffusing out of starchgranules. These specific characteristicslead to a favourable behaviour duringextrusion-processes.Compared to other starch sources, ricederivatives benefit also from a neutral taste.
A large variety of rice starches
There is a large variety in the char-acteristics of rice starches and resultingfunctional properties.The various rice varieties differstrongly in amylose/amylopectin content,giving the starch of each variety a specificset of technological characteristics.This enables the feed technolo-gist to play with gel strength, gel-ling temperature and starch granulerigidity.Not only is there a large natural rangeof starch characteristics, but also a widearray of treatments, ranging from prege-latinisation to acetylation, allow to adjustthe characteristics of the starch/flour tothe specific technological requirementsof a fish feed.
by Karel Thurman, BENEO-Animal Nutrition, Belgium
When rice extrudates are cooled the product’s structure is more homogeneous and the surface smoother.The surface of extrudates is important when it comes to the behaviour of the pellet in water
26 | IttIol
| January-February 2010-
Characteristics of different starches
Ricestarch Wheat starchCornStarchTapiocaStarchPotatoStarch
Size (µm) 2-8 3-40 15-25 20-35 15-80Shape Hexagonal Oval Hexagonal Hexagonal OvalGel structure Soft, creamy Firm Firm Sticky Sticky
An extrusion enhancer
In the extrusion process, one of themost important characteristics is the hot-set of a flour.This is the increase of viscosity during thecooling of the dough.Rice flours/starches arecharacterised by a very high hot set tem-perature and viscosity increase rate duringexpansion of the dough after the extruder’s die,certainly compared to other cereal flours.As theviscosity is increasing earlier and faster with ricederivatives,the expanded dough will give moreresistance to the formation of steam pockets.When the extrudates are cooled down,the product’s structure is more homogene-ous and the surface will be smoother. Thesurface of the extrudates is importantwhen it comes to the behaviour of thepellet in water.Via the use of rice starches, water penetra-tion in the pellet can be limited increasing thedurability of the pellet in the water.
A floatability regulator
Not only the surface of the pellet issmoother when rice flour is used in theextrusion process. Also the expansion of
-January-February 2010 | IttIol
"The surface of the extrudates isimportant whenit comes to thebehaviour of the pellet in water"