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Fracture

Fracture

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Published by: Muhamad Firdaus Azizan on Jan 13, 2010
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12/31/2012

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Lecture Notes in:
FRACTURE MECHANICSVictor E. Saouma
Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural EngineeringUniversity of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428
 
Draft
Contents
1.1 Modes of Failures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Examples of Structural Failures Caused by Fracture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Fracture Mechanics vs Strength of Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.4 Major Historical Developments in Fracture Mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.5 Coverage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Tensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.1 Indicial Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1.2 Tensor Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.1.3 Rotation of Axes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.1.4 Trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.1.5 Inverse Tensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.1.6 Principal Values and Directions of Symmetric Second Order Tensors. . . 62.2 Kinetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.2.1 Force, Traction and Stress Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.2.2 Traction on an Arbitrary Plane; Cauchy’s Stress Tensor. . . . . . . . . . 8E 2-1 Stress Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2.3 Invariants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.2.4 Spherical and Deviatoric Stress Tensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.2.5 Stress Transformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.2.6 Polar Coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.3 Kinematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.3.1 Strain Tensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.3.2 Compatibility Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.4 Fundamental Laws of Continuum Mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.4.1 Conservation Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.4.2 Fluxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.4.3 Conservation of Mass; Continuity Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.4.4 Linear Momentum Principle; Equation of Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.4.5 Moment of Momentum Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.4.6 Conservation of Energy; First Principle of Thermodynamics. . . . . . . . 182.5 Constitutive Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.5.1 Transversly Isotropic Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.5.2 Special 2D Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.5.2.1 Plane Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
 
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CONTENTS iii
5.1.1.2 Ideal Strength in Terms of Engineering Parameter. . . . . . . . 45.1.2 Shear Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.2 Griffith Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55.2.1 Derivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6.1 Thermodynamics of Crack Growth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1.1 General Derivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1.2 Brittle Material, Griffith’s Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.2 Energy Release Rate; Global. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.2.1 From Load-Displacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.2.2 From Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66.3 Energy Release Rate; Local. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.4 Crack Stability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106.4.1 Effect of Geometry; Π Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106.4.2 Effect of Material;
R
Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126.4.2.1 Theoretical Basis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126.4.2.2
R
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126.4.2.3 Plane Strain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136.4.2.4 Plane Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.1 Analytical Models for Isotropic Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.1.1 Maximum Circumferential Tensile Stress.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.1.2 Maximum Energy Release Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.1.3 Minimum Strain Energy Density Criteria.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.1.4 Observations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67.2 Empirical Models for Rocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.3 Extensions to Anisotropic Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97.4 Interface Cracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137.4.1 Crack Tip Fields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157.4.2 Dimensions of Bimaterial Stress Intensity Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167.4.3 Interface Fracture Toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177.4.3.1 Interface Fracture Toughness when
= 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 197.4.3.2 Interface Fracture Toughness when
= 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 207.4.4 Crack Kinking Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207.4.4.1 Numerical Results from He and Hutchinson. . . . . . . . . . . 217.4.4.2 Numerical Results Using Merlin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227.4.5 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.1 Uniaxial Stress Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1.1 First-Order Approximation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1.2 Second-Order Approximation (Irwin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1.2.1 Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Victor Saouma Fracture Mechanics

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